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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.59.2020.tde-04102019-160625
Document
Author
Full name
Luana Leite Guimarães Santos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Nascimento, Fabio Santos do (President)
Menezes, Cristiano
Simoes, Zila Luz Paulino
Vatimo, Michelle Manfrini Morais
Title in Portuguese
Mecanismos e estratégias de defesa em Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Keywords in Portuguese
Abelhas sem ferrão
Comportamento de defesa
Socialidade
Soldados
Abstract in Portuguese
Os ninhos de insetos sociais contêm recursos valiosos armazenados e são frequentemente alvos de outros animais. As abelhas sem ferrão (Meliponini) apresentam muitas adaptações organizacionais para a defesa do ninho. A espécie Tetragonisca angustula possui uma sofisticada estratégia de defesa da colônia executada por opérárias diferencialmente maiores (polietismo morfológico) em comparação com as demais da mesma casta. Essas guardas podem adotar duas estratégias distintas, pairando perto da entrada (guardas voadoras, GV) ou sentado no tubo de entrada (guardas fixas, GF). Ambos os tipos de guardas atacam inimigos em potencial, reconhecidos por suas cores e odores, que tentam invadir o ninho. As sensilas das antenas são responsáveis por perceber os estímulos químicos dispersos no ar. Nesse sentido, o tamanho corporal pode influenciar a eficácia de reconhecimento de indivíduos hetero e coespecíficos, pois quanto maior a superfície antenal maior a quantidade de sensilas olfativas. Buscamos entender melhor os papéis exercidos pelos dois fenótipos comportamentais de guardas na defesa da colônia, ...em relação às seguintes circunstâncias: Tipo de invasor (alado ou áptero), ao modo de aproximação (voando e caminhando), o comportamento mediante o inimigo natural Lestrimelitta limao e outros espécies potencialmente predadoras e neutras além de examinar a influência do tamanho corporal da guarda em sua capacidade de reconhecimento sensorial e os mecanismos defesa contra os intrusos. Buscamos compreender melhor os mecanismos de defesa e reconhecimento de intrusos. Os resultados obtidos revelam que as guardas apresentaram respostas distintas frente aos intrusos e ao modo de apresentação destes, onde intrusos alados, caminhando, provocam mais respostas das GF, já as GV reagiram quando os intrusos aproximaram voando, de maneira complementar. A presença de L. limao gerou alta proporção de recrutamento e respostas comportamentais agressivas de T. angustula, sugerindo especialização. As respostas apresentadas para os intrusos de cores e morfologia diferentes dos coespecíficos sugerem que GV e GF têm a capacidade de reconhecimento e semelhante. Observamos ainda que guardas maiores cometem menos erros de reconhecimento, sendo assim, esta subcasta desempenha de modo eficiente a proteção da colônia o que consequentemente pode aumentar suas chances de sobrevivência
Title in English
Mechanisms and strategies of defense in Tetragonisca angustula (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
Keywords in English
Defense behavior
Sociality
Soldiers
Stingless bee
Abstract in English
Nests of social insects have valuable resources which are often attacked by invertebrates and vertebrates. Stingless bees (Meliponini) have many organizational adaptations for nest defense. The species Tetragonisca angustula has a sophisticated colony defense strategy carried out by differentially larger opéraria (morphological polyethylism) compared to the others of the same caste. These guards can adopt two distinct strategies, hovering near the entrance (hovering guards, GV) or sitting on the entrance tube (stand guards, GF). Both types of guards attack potential enemies, recognized for their colors and odors, as they attempt to invade the nest. Antenna sensillae are responsible for perceiving chemical stimuli dispersed in the air. In this sense, body size may influence the recognition efficiency of hetero and co-specific individuals, because the larger the antenal surface the greater the amount of olfactory sensilla. We seek to better understand the roles played by the two behavioral phenotypes of guards in the defense of the colony, in relation to the following circumstances: Type of invader (winged or asteroid), approach mode (flying and walking), behavior by natural enemy Lestrimelitta limao and other potentially predatory and neutral species in addition to examining the influence of guard body size on their sensory recognition ability and defense mechanisms against intruders. We seek to better understand the mechanisms of defense and recognition of intruders. The results show that the guards presented different responses to the intruders and their mode of presentation, where winged intruders, walking, elicit more responses from the FG, while the GV reacted when the intruders approached in a complementary manner. The presence of L. limao generated high proportion of recruitment and aggressive behavioral responses of T. angustula guards, suggesting specialization. The responses presented for intruders of different color and morphology suggest that GV and GF have recognition capability and the like. We also observed that larger guards make fewer recognition errors, so this subcast efficiently protects the colony, which consequently increases the likelihood of colony survival
 
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Publishing Date
2020-01-14
 
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