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Master's Dissertation
Full name
Ariadne de Andrade Costa
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Ribeirão Preto, 2011
Kinouchi Filho, Osame (President)
Carvalho, Josué Xavier de
Prado, Carmen Pimentel Cintra do
Title in Portuguese
Quasi-criticalidade auto-organizada em avalanches neuronais
Keywords in Portuguese
avalanches neuronais
criticalidade auto-organizada
Abstract in Portuguese
Experimentos têm revelado que redes de neurônios, tanto in vitro como in vivo, mantêm atividade descrita por avalanches e se organizam em um estado crítico no qual essas avalanches são distribuídas de acordo com leis de potência. Mostramos no presente trabalho que um modelo de rede de elementos excitáveis com sinapses dinâ- micas é capaz de exibir criticalidade auto-organizada para ampla região do espaço de parâmetros. Nossos resultados estão de acordo com outros estudos que indicam que a depressão sináptica de curto prazo constitui mecanismo suciente para produzir criticalidade em avalanches neuronais. No entanto, segundo diversos pesquisadores, embora o ajuste de parâmetros seja grosso para que haja criticalidade no modelo, é mais preciso dizer que o sistema não apresenta criticalidade auto-organizada genu ína, mas sim quasi-criticalidade auto-organizada, como os demais modelos não conservativos presentes na literatura.
Title in English
Self-organized quasi-criticality in neuronal avalanches
Keywords in English
neuronal avalanches
self-organized criticality
Abstract in English
Experiments have shown that neuronal networks, both in vitro and in vivo, maintain activity described by avalanches and they are organized into a critical state in which these avalanches are distributed according to power laws. We have demonstrated that a model based on a network of excitable elements with dynamical synapses is able to exhibit self-organized criticality for a wide range of the parameter's space. Our results are consistent with other studies that suggest short-term synaptic depression is enough to produce criticality in neuronal avalanches. However, according to several researchers, in spite of the tuning to be gross to ensure that there is criticality in the model, it is more accurate do not say that the system presents genuine self-organized criticality, but self-organized quasi-criticality as the other non-conservative models in the literature.
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