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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.59.2014.tde-20052014-113830
Document
Author
Full name
Marcelo Barros Villa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Costa, Alessandro Martins da (President)
Moralles, Mauricio
Nicolucci, Patrícia
Title in Portuguese
Estudo da função resposta de um detector cintilador de Nal(TI)
Keywords in Portuguese
Cintilador
Espectrometria
Função resposta
Radiação
Radiação gama
Abstract in Portuguese
O conhecimento preciso do espectro energético de fótons é de extrema importância na radioterapia no que se refere à escolha adequada das doses a que os pacientes são submetidos. Os dados de saída dos detectores de radiação são apenas espectros de altura de pulso (PHD), ao invés de espectros de energia, que correspondem a informações distorcidas sobre a fonte e seus decaimentos devido a diversos erros associados ao processo de cintilação do cristal e à eletrônica. Os resultados medidos foram obtidos com o uso de um detector cintilador de NaI(Tl) e as simulações Monte Carlo foram feitas com o uso do programa EGSnrc. A partir das características do detector obtidas experimentalmente, nossas simulações puderam ser validadas para se aproximarem o mais próximo possível do caso real em laboratório. Dessas medidas experimentais de fontes radioativas de calibração e simulações, foi montada uma matriz resposta inversa que transforma PHD em espectro de energia de fótons. Uma vez que a faixa energética das fontes radioativas medidas teve um limite de 1.6MeV, a matriz resposta também o apresenta, mas que pode ser contornado de acordo com a geometria usada para a obtenção do PHD a ser corrigido. Observa-se que a resposta do detector é diretamente proporcional à energia e assim, dependendo da energia incidente a ser estudada, dois tipos de matriz resposta inversa podem ser aplicadas. Os resultados desta transformação de PHD para espectro de energia de fótons são apresentados.
Title in English
A Study on the Response Function of a NaI(Tl) Scintilation Detector
Keywords in English
Gamma rays
Response function
Scintillator
Spectrometry
X-rays
Abstract in English
The accurate knowledge of the photon energy spectrum in radiotherapy is of extremely importance when it comes to the appropriate choice for doses whose patients are submitted. The output data from the radiation detectors is described as pulse high distributions, instead of energy spectra, that correspond to distorted information about the source and its decays due to many errors associated to the crystal scintillation process and the electronics. The measured results were obtained with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and Monte Carlo simulations were performed by the EGSnrc program. From the detector characteristics obtained experimentally, the simulations were validated so they could approximate the more real as possible as in laboratory. Using these simulated and experimental calibration sources, an inverse response matrix was built and transforms pulse high distributions in photons energy spectrum. Once the correction energy limit due to the radiation sources used is approximately 1.6 MeV, so the response matrix has a limit, but it can be overcame by the beam incident angle and the geometry used when the pulse high distributions to be corrected is going to be measured. One can realize that the detector response is directly proportional to the incident energy and, when it is intense as in a LINAC or weak as in a calibration source, different types of matrix can be applied. The results from these transformations are presented.
 
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Publishing Date
2014-09-24
 
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