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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.59.2014.tde-29042014-111302
Document
Author
Full name
Francisco de Araújo Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Demets, Gregoire Jean Francois (President)
Anaíssi, Fauze Jacó
Sumodjo, Paulo Teng An
Title in Portuguese
Intercalados de pentóxido de vanádio com cucurbit[n]urilas e hemi-cucurbit[6]urila
Keywords in Portuguese
compostos intercalados
cucurbiturilas
hemi-cucurbiturilas
pentóxido de vanádio
Abstract in Portuguese
Compósitos de xerogel de pentóxido de vanádio (VXG) com cucurbit[6]urila (CB[6]), hemicucurbit[6]urila (HCB[6]) e oxovanadio(IV)cucurbit[6]urila (CB[6]VO) em diferentes concentrações foram preparados por mistura mecânica dos macrociclos com o gel de V2O5. Misturas homogêneas foram obtidas para quantidades até 10% em mol de CB[6] e HCB[6], e 1% de CB[6]VO. Estes macrociclos foram intercalados nos espaços interlamelares do VXG como mostram os dados de difração de raios-X (DRX), aumentando o espaço interlamelar e criando dois domínios cristalográficos distintos. As propriedades estruturais e composição destes intercalados foram estudadas por espectroscopia no infravermelho, análise termogravimétrica, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de força atômica. Ensaios eletroquímicos mostraram que a capacidade específica de carga inicial do VXG (158 mA.h.g-1) melhora com a presença de CB[6] (168 mA.h.g-1), da HCB[6] (200 mA.h.g-1), e principalmente com CB[6]VO (230 mA.h.g-1), em filmes finos com baixa concentração dos macrociclos. Isto supera a capacidade de eletrodos de bateria comerciais. Nos intercalados com CB[6] a complexação dos íons Li+ com seus opérculos prejudica a reversibilidade na inserção/desinserção deste íon, diminuindo drasticamente a ciclabilidade de carga/descarga; a presença da HCB[6], que não complexa com o íon Li+, não sustenta a estrutura do VXG ao longo de vários ciclos, por não ser um macrociclo rígido. A presença de CB[6]VO parece estabilizar a estrutura do VXG oferencendo caminhos alternativos na difusão do íon Li+, que não complexa com os opérculos da CB obstruído pelo ion VO2+, aumentando a ciclabilidade, mantendo sua carga específica em aproximadamente 88% após 40 ciclos cronopotenciométricos.
Title in English
Vanadium pentoxide intercalates with cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]) and hemi-cucurbit[6]uril (HCB[6])
Keywords in English
cucurbiturils
hemi-cucurbiturils
intercalate compounds
vanadium pentoxide
Abstract in English
Cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]), hemi-cucurbit[6]uril (HCB[6]), and oxovanadium(IV)cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]VO) vanadium pentoxide composites were prepared in several mole ratios by mechanically mixing the macrocycles and the V2O5 gel. Homogeneous mixtures were obtained for amounts as high as 10% in mol of CB[6] and HCB[6] and 1% of CB[6]VO. These macrocycles were intercalated in VXG interlamellar space as we could demonstrate with X-ray powder diffraction experiments (XRPD),which clearly show basal distance expansions and the formation of two crystallographic domains. The structural properties of such intercalates as well as their composition were studied with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimmetric analysis, sweeping electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Electrochemical experiments have shown that the initial specific charge capacity of VXG (158 mA.h.g1) was enhanced with the addition of CB[6] (168 mA.h.g1) and HCB[6] (200 mA.h.g1) and even more with (230 mA.h.g1) in thin films with low macrocycle amounts. These capacities exceed commercial batteries electrodes. Complexation of CB[6] with Li+ ions in CB[6]/VXG intercalates reduces considerably the reversibility of insertion/expulsion of this ion, reducing drastically its charge/discharge cyclability. The presence of HCB[6], who does not bind Li+ ions, is not rigid enough to sustain the oxide structure during many cycles. The presence of CB[6]VO seems to stabilize the VXG structure and offers alternative pathways for Li+ diffusion. It does not bind these ions since the occulli are occupied by VO2+ ions, enhancing cyclability. Its specific charge remains as high as 88% of the maximum charge capacity after 40 chronopotentiometric cycles.
 
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Publishing Date
2014-05-13
 
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