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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.6.2017.tde-27112017-141635
Document
Author
Full name
Camila Delanesi Guedes
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Paganini, Wanderley da Silva (President)
Iwai, Cristiano Kenji
Mancuso, Pedro Caetano Sanches
Piveli, Roque Passos
Quevedo, Claudia Maria Gomes de
Title in Portuguese
A presença de fármacos nos esgotos domésticos e sua remoção pelos processos de lodo ativado com oxigênio puro, lagoa aerada e reator anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente
Keywords in Portuguese
Esgoto
Fármacos
Lagoa Aerada
Lodos Ativados
Reator Anaeróbio
Tratamento Biológico
Abstract in Portuguese
Processos biológicos de tratamento de esgotos são largamente utilizados mundialmente e, apesar de serem eficientes na remoção de matéria orgânica, têm capacidades limitadas na remoção de poluentes orgânios emergentes, principalmente fármacos. Este trabalho avaliou a eficiência dos processos de tratamento de esgotos por lodos ativados com oxigênio puro, lagoas aeradas e reator anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente (RAFA) na remoção de seis fármacos selecionados - paracetamol, ibuprofeno, atenolol, sinvastatina, carbamazepina e clonazepam, com altos índices de utilização pela população. Para isto, foram analisadas amostras de esgoto bruto e de esgoto tratado oriundas de três estações de tratamento de esgotos em operação no Estado de São Paulo, sendo realizadas quatro campanhas de coleta, durante dois anos, em períodos hidrológicos de seca e chuva. A técnica analítica utilizada foi a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada à espectrometria de massas (LC-MS/MS), através de método estabelecido e validado para a execução desta pesquisa. Ibuprofeno, sinvastatina e clonazepam não foram identificados em nenhuma das amostras analisadas. Atenolol, paracetamol e carbamazepina foram detectados em todas as estações estudadas, observando-se remoção e liberação deles durante todos os processos de tratamento. A estação que adota o processo por lagoas aeradas mostrou maior eficiência na remoção de paracetamol e atenolol, sendo que um elevado tempo de detenção hidráulica empregado nela parece ter influenciado positivamente na eficácia de remoção destas subtâncias. A estação que utiliza lodos ativados com oxigênio puro apresentou remoções inferiores e maiores taxas de liberação dos fármacos paracetamol e carbamazepina. Já a estação que adota RAFA apresentou discreta superioridade na remoção de carbamazepina, e eficiências intermediárias para paracetamol e atenolol. A carbamazepina mostrou resistência à degradaçào pelos processos avaliados, porém a desinfecção do efluente final, por cloração, aparentemente elevou a remoção deste composto.
Title in English
Pharmaceuticals in domestic sewage and their removal by pure oxygen activated sludge, aerated basin and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket
Keywords in English
Activated Sludge
Aerated Lagoon
Anaerobic Reactor
Biological Treatment
Pharmaceuticals
Sewage
Abstract in English
Sewage biological treatment processes are the most used worldwide and, in general, they show organic matter removal high efficiency, however their pharmaceuticals removal capacity were quite limited. The aim of this study is verify the efficiency of sewage biological treatment processes per pure oxygen activated sludge, aerated basin and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), in removal of six selected drugs acetaminophen, ibuprofen, atenolol, simvastatin, carbamazepine and clonazepam, most frequently used by population. For this purpose, it was analyzed raw sewage and treated sewage samples from three sewage treatment plants localized at Sao Paulo, Brazil, in four collection stages, during two years, at dry and wet periods. The analytical technique of choice was high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), by developed and validated method for this study. Ibuprofen, simvastatin and clonazepam were not detected at any samples collected. Atenolol, acetaminophen and carbamazepine were identified at all plants investigated, with removal and production during all treatment processes here considered. Aerated basin plant was most efficient in acetaminophen and atenolol removal, and a high hydraulic detention time seem be better to remove these compounds. Pure oxygen activated sludge plant showed lower removal rates and higher production of acetaminophen and carbamazepine. Already the UASB plant revealed a little superiority in carbamazepine removal, and intermediary efficacy to acetaminophen and atenolol removal. Carbamazepine showed persistence in treatment processes evaluated, however final effluent disinfection, with chlorination, apparently raised this compound removal.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-11-27
 
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