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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Flavia de Conti Cartolano
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Damasceno, Nágila Raquel Teixeira (President)
Lottenberg, Ana Maria Pita
Mancini, Márcio Corrêa
Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira
Quintao, Eder Carlos Rocha
Title in Portuguese
Impacto da incorporação de ômega 3 na funcionalidade da lipoproteína de alta densidade: ensaio clínico aleatorizado, paralelo e controlado
Keywords in Portuguese
DHA
EPA
Lag Time
Lipoproteína de Alta Densidade
Tamanho de Partícula
Abstract in Portuguese
INTRODUÇÃO: Apesar de classicamente a lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL) ser descrita como um fator de risco independente para as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV), devido ao seu papel no transporte reverso de colesterol (TRC), atualmente sabe-se que esta partícula exerce múltiplos mecanismos biológicos que podem contribuir para esta cardioproteção, com estudos indo além do conteúdo de colesterol associada à HDL (HDL-C). OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto da suplementação de ?-3 no perfil de ácidos graxos, tamanho e capacidade antioxidante da HDL. MÉTODOS: Estudo clínico, aleatorizado, controlado, duplo cego e paralelo, onde foram incluídos 147 indivíduos adultos, com fatores de risco cardiovascular, que foram alocados no grupo ?-3 (n=77 - 3,0 g/dia contendo 1,8 g de EPA+DHA) ou no grupo ?-6 (n=70 - 3,0 g/dia de óleo de girassol contendo 1,95 g de ácido linoleico). No início (T0) e após 8 semanas (T8) amostras de sangue foram coletadas e, a partir do plasma ou soro, foram analisados o perfil lipídico (CT, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG), as apolipoproteínas AI, CII e CIII, as subfrações da HDL (Lipoprint®), a atividade da paraoxonase (PON1) e da proteína transportadora de éster de colesterol (CETP), a capacidade antioxidante da HDL (método experimental) e o perfil de ácidos graxos e conteúdo de AGNEs da HDL. Os resultados do efeito do tempo, da intervenção e das interações entre os parâmetros monitorados e os desfechos foram realizados com o auxílio do programa SPSS® versão 20.0. O valor de significância considerado foi de p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Os grupos ?-3 e ?-6 eram semelhantes entre si em relação a idade, sexo, tabagismo e uso de medicamentos, ambos apresentando alta prevalência de hipertensão e dislipidemia. Nos dois grupos, houve redução em todos os marcadores lipídicos, exceto a concentração de HDL-C, que aumentou. Observou-se o efeito do tempo no conteúdo de HDLAGNEs (?=-16,2%), no percentual de HDLGRANDE (?=20,1%) e de HDLPEQUENA (?=-5,0%). O aumento de EPA na HDL se associou à menor chance de ter elevação da atividade da PON1 (OR=0,446; IC=0,200-0,994), da concentração de HDLAGNEs (OR=0,275; IC=0,113-0,660) e do percentual de HDLPEQUENA (OR=0,337; IC=0,146-0,782). Observou-se ainda que o EPA se associou a, aproximadamente, 3,5 mais chances de aumento no percentual da HDLGRANDE (OR=3,522; IC=1,652-7,507). Quanto ao aumento de DHA na HDL, este esteve associado de maneira significativa à diminuição da concentração de Apo AI (OR=0,351; IC=0,150-0,821), além da atividade da PON1 (OR=0,226; IC=0,110-0,639) e da concentração de HDLAGNEs (OR=0,275; IC=0,113-0,668). Resultados similares aos obtidos com o EPA foram observados para o DHA e o tamanho da HDL. Não foi constatado efeito da incorporação de EPA e DHA na resistência à oxidação. CONCLUSÃO: A intervenção com ?-3 promoveu mudanças na composição da partícula de HDL, aumentando o percentual das subfrações maiores, sem, contudo, modificar sua capacidade antioxidante.
Title in English
Impact of omega 3 incorporation on the functionality of high-density lipoprotein: randomized, parallel and controlled clinical trial
Keywords in English
DHA
EPA
High-density Lipoprotein
Lag Time
Particle Size
Abstract in English
BACKGROUND: Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is classically described as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), because of its role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), currently, it is known that this particle exerts multiple biological mechanisms that may contribute to this cardioprotection, with studies going beyond HDL cholesterol content (HDL-C). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of ?-3 supplementation on the fatty acid profile, size and antioxidant capacity of HDL. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel clinical study involving 147 adult subjects with cardiovascular risk factors, who were allocated into the ?-3 group (n=77 -3.0 g/day containing 1.8 g EPA + DHA) or the ?-6 group (n=70 -3.0 g/day of sunflower oil containing 1.95 g of linoleic acid). In the beginning (T0) and after 8 weeks (T8) blood samples were collected and, from plasma or serum, were analyzed lipid profile (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG), apolipoproteins AI, CII and CIII, HDL subfractions (Lipoprint®), paraoxonase (PON1) and cholesterol ester carrier protein (CETP) activities, antioxidant capacity of HDL (experimental method), the fatty acid profile and NEFAs content HDL. Results of the effect of time, intervention and interactions between monitored parameters and outcomes were performed with the aid of SPSS® software version 20.0. The significance level considered was p<0.05. RESULTS: The ?-3 and ?-6 groups were similar in relation to age, sex, smoking and medication use, both presenting high prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia. In both groups, there was a reduction in all lipid markers except HDL-C concentration, which increased. The effect of time on HDLNEFAs content (?=-16.2%), and on the percentage of HDLLARGE (?=20.1%) and HDLSMALL (?=-5.0%) were observed. Increasing EPA in HDL was associated with a lower chance of enhance PON1 activity (OR=0.446, CI=0.200-0.994), HDLNEFAs concentration (OR=0.275, CI=0.113-0.660), and HDLSMALL (OR=0.337, CI=0.146- 0.782). It was also observed that EPA was associated with approximately 3.5 more chances of raising the percentage of HDLLARGE (OR=3.522, CI=1.652-7.507). Increasing DHA in HDL was significantly associated with a decrease in Apo AI concentration (OR=0.351, CI=0.150- 0.821), and also PON1 activity (OR=0.226, CI=0.110-0.639) and concentration of HDLNEFAs (OR=0.275, CI=0.113-0.668). Similar results obtained with EPA were observed for DHA and HDL size. No effect of the incorporation of EPA and DHA on oxidation resistance was observed. CONCLUSION: The ?-3 intervention promoted changes in the composition of the HDL particle, increasing the percentage of the larger subfractions, without, however, modifying its antioxidant capacity.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-01-18
 
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