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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.60.2013.tde-22082013-133138
Document
Author
Full name
Francine Attié de Castro
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Lanchote, Vera Lucia (President)
Barbosa Junior, Fernando
Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa
Nucci, Gilberto de
Simoes, Belinda Pinto
Title in Portuguese
Enantiosseletividade na disposição cinética e no metabolismo da ciclofosfamida e ajuste de dose do bussulfano em pacientes submetidos a transplante de células tronco hematopoéticas
Keywords in Portuguese
Bussulfano
Ciclofosfamida
Farmacocinética
Metabolismo
Transplante de Células Tronco Hematopoéticas
Abstract in Portuguese
O bussulfano (BU) e a ciclofosfamida (CY) são fármacos utilizados nos regimes de condicionamento pré-transplante de células tronco hematopoéticas (TCTH). O BU apresenta estreito intervalo terapêutico, alta variabilidade interindividual na farmacocinética e graves reações adversas. O presente estudo avaliou a administração de uma dose teste de BU oral para a individualização do regime de dosagem, definiu o melhor tempo de coletas esparsas para o monitoramento terapêutico do BU e validou um algoritmo baseado em modelo compartimental e farmacocinética populacional em pacientes submetidos ao TCTH. Trinta pacientes portadores de doenças hematológicas tiveram o tratamento com BU individualizado baseado em uma dose teste oral de 0,25 mg/Kg de BU. As doses foram baseadas no clearance aparente calculado na dose teste e as concentrações plasmáticas foram confirmadas após a quinta dose de tratamento. Os coeficientes de variação obtidos entre os valores de clearance avaliados na dose teste e na quinta dose foram <= 30%, exceto para 5 pacientes. Não foram observadas associação entre os parâmetros farmacocinéticos do BU e a evolução clínica dos pacientes. Com a finalidade de estimar os melhores tempos de coletas ideais para aplicação no monitoramento terapêutico do BU, um modelo farmacocinética populacional foi utilizado e um esquema de coletas esparsas com não mais de cinco amostras por paciente (t = 0,5; 2,25; 3; 4 e 5 horas após a dose) demonstrou ser suficiente para a caracterização da farmacocinética do BU. O presente estudo avaliou também a farmacocinética dos enantiômeros da ciclofosfamida (CY) e seus metabólitos (4-hidroxiciclofosfamida e carboxiciclofosfamida), em pacientes submetidos ao TCTH. Foram investigados pacientes portadores de esclerose sistêmica (n=10) e esclerose múltipla (n=10) em regime de condicionamento com 50 mg CY /kg/dia durante 4 dias. Dois ensaios específicos baseados na análise por LC-MS/MS foram desenvolvidos e validados para analisar os enantiômeros da CY e seus metabólito 4- hidroxiciclofosfamida (HCY) e carboxiciclofosfamida (CEPM) em plasma humano. Os parâmetros farmacocinéticos dos enantiômeros da CY e seus metabólitos foram calculados empregando o programa WinNonlin e mostraram acúmulo plasmático dos enantiômeros (S)- (-)-CY (AUC 215, 0 vs 186,2 ?g.h/mL para os paciente EM e 219,1 vs 179,2 ?g.h/mL para os paciente ES) e HCY (1), provavelmente o (R)-(+)-HCY (AUC 5,6 vs 3,7 ?g.h/mL para os paciente EM e 6,3 vs 5,6 ?g.h/mL para os paciente ES) em ambos os grupos de pacientes investigados. A disposição cinética do metabólito CEPM não mostrou enantiosseletividade. A farmacocinética da CY e seus metabólitos HCY e CEPM não diferiu entre os pacientes portadores de EM ou ES. Não foi observado correlação entre o metabolismo da CY e os genótipos avaliados (CYP2B6 e CYP2C9). Não foi possível correlacionar os valores de AUC0-? dos enantiômeros da CY e/ou dos metabólitos HCY e CEPM com a toxicidade ao uso de CY em virtude do pequeno número de pacientes investigados.
Title in English
Enantioselectivity on the kinetic disposition and metabolism of cyclophosphamide and busulfan dose adjustment in patients who underwent stem cell marrow transplantation.
Keywords in English
Busulfan
Cyclophosphamide
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Pharmacokinectics
Abstract in English
Busulfan (BU) and cyclophosphamide (CY) are drugs used during conditioning treatment for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). BU presents narrow therapeutic window, high interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics and serious adverse effects. The present study evaluated the administration of a BU test dose for dose individualization, set the best sparse sampling scheme for BU therapeutic monitoring and validated an algorithm based on compartmental and population pharmacokinetics model in HSCT patients. Thirty patients received BU individualized treatment based on an oral test dose of 0.25 mg/kg. Doses were based on apparent clearance calculated with BU test dose. Plasma concentrations were confirmed after the fifth treatment dose. Coefficients of variation obtained between the clearance values evaluated in the test dose and fifth dose were <= 30%, except for 5 patients. No association between BU pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcome was observed. To estimate the ideal sampling scheme for BU therapeutic drug monitoring, a population pharmacokinetic model was used. Sparse sampling scheme with no more than five samples per patient (t = 0.5, 2.25, 3, 4 and 5 hours after dosing) was shown to be sufficient to characterize the BU pharmacokinetics. This study also evaluated the pharmacokinetics of the cyclophosphamide enantiomers and its metabolites (4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and carboxicyclophosphamide) in HSCT patients. We investigated patients with systemic sclerosis (SS) (n = 10) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 10) in the conditioning regimen with CY 50 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Two specific tests based on LC-MS/MS analysis were developed and validated to analyze the CY enantiomers and its metabolite 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (HCY) and carboxicyclophosphamide (CEPM) in human plasma. Pharmacokinetics of CY enantiomers and its metabolites were calculated using WinNonlin software and showed plasma accumulation of (S)-(-)-CY (AUC 215.0 vs 186.2 ?g.h/mL for the MS patient and 219.1 vs. 179.2 ?g.h/mL for the SS patient) and HCY (1), probably the (R)-(+)-HCY (AUC 5.6 vs 3.7 ?g.h /mL for MS patients and 6.3 vs 5.6 ?g.h/ mL for the SS patients) enantiomers in both groups of investigated patients. CEPM kinetics disposition showed lack of enantioselectivity. The pharmacokinetics of CY and its metabolites (HCY and CEPM) did not differ between patients with MS or SS. There was no correlation between the metabolism of CY, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 genotypes. It was not possible to correlate the AUC0-? of CY enantiomers and/or its metabolites (HCY and CEPM) with CY toxicity due to the small number of patients investigated.
 
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Publishing Date
2013-10-29
 
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