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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.60.2007.tde-03042009-092812
Document
Author
Full name
Aline Fernanda Ferreira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Castro, Fabíola Attié de (President)
Carrara, Rita de Cassia Viu
Machado, Cleni Mara Marzocchi
Title in Portuguese
Efeitos dos inibidores de tirosina-quinase sobre a maquinaria apoptótica na leucemia mielóide crônica
Keywords in Portuguese
Apoptose
Inibidores de Tirosina-quinase e Expressão gênica.
Leucemia Mielóide Crônica
Abstract in Portuguese
A leucemia mielóide crônica (LMC) é uma doença mieloproliferativa, resultante da expansão clonal da célula-tronco hematopoética pluripotente. A fisiopatologia da LMC está associada a uma translocação entre os braços longos dos cromossomos 9 e 22, o que promove o aparecimento do neogene bcr-abl, cujo gene codifica uma proteína denominada Bcr-Abl. A oncoproteína Bcr-Abl possui atividade tirosina-quinase constitutiva que é a responsável pelo fenótipo maligno da célula, incluindo resistência à apoptose. O tratamento da LMC pode ser realizado com hidroxiuréia, IFN- associado à citarabina, inibidores de TK (mesilato de imatinibe e dasatinibe) e transplante de medula óssea. O tratamento de escolha para pacientes com LMC na fase crônica é o inibidor de tirosina-quinase mesilato de imatinibe e para os refratários utiliza-se o dasatinibe. Apesar do conhecimento acerca do mecanismo de ação dos inibidores de TK, pouco se sabe sobre seu efeito na maquinaria apoptótica. Sendo assim, no presente trabalho foi detectada a expressão dos genes e proteínas anti- (A1, Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl, Bcl-W, C-Flip, Ciap-1, Ciap-2 e Mcl-1) e pró-apoptóticos (Bad, Bak, Bax, Bcl-Xs, Bid, Bik, Bimel, Bmf, Bok, Fas, Fasl, Noxa e Puma) em células mononucleares de 32 indivíduos saudáveis e 26 pacientes com LMC antes e após 12 meses da terapia com mesilato de imatinibe e dasatinibe. Dentre os 26 pacientes avaliados, 13 eram do sexo feminino e 13 do sexo masculino, três eram negros, um amarelo e 22 brancos, com idade média de 48 anos (faixa etária de 25 a 77 anos). O grupo controle foi composto por 32 indivíduos, 16 do sexo feminino e 16 do sexo masculino, 26 eram brancos, quatro negros e dois amarelos, com idade média de 45 anos (idade de 23 a 77 anos). O isolamento das células mononucleares foi realizado pelo método de Ficoll-Hypaque, a determinação da expressão gênica por PCR em tempo real e a protéica por western-blot. Os resultados foram expressos em unidade relativa de expressão (U.R.E.), comparados entre os diferentes grupos (controle e pacientes pré- e pós-tratamento), associados à resposta aos medicamentos e correlacionados ao índice de prognóstico de SOKAL. Na comparação dos dados de expressão gênica entre pacientes e controles, verificou-se que os pacientes apresentaram maior expressão dos genes bcl-xL, c-flip, mcl-1 e fas e níveis reduzidos de bik. O mesilato de imatinibe modulou significativamente a transcrição dos genes bcl-xL, bok, mcl-1 e noxa, enquanto que o dasatinibe agiu sobre a expressão dos genes a1, bmf, c-flip, ciap-1, ciap-2 e mcl-1. Os pacientes refratários ao mesilato de imatinibe apresentaram níveis elevados de expressão de a1 e c-flip e reduzida expressão de bcl-2, ciap-2, bak, bax, bid e fasl em relação aos pacientes em remissão. A expressão protéica refletiu os dados da quantificação do RNAm dos genes. Os dados da presente investigação indicam que as células mononucleares dos pacientes com LMC apresentam desregulação do processo de apoptose celular. Essa alteração pode ser parcialmente associada ao fenótipo de resistência das células leucêmicas Bcr-Abl+ à apoptose e ausência de resposta aos inibidores de TK. Os dados revelam ainda que os inibidores de tirosina-quinase interferem na transcrição e tradução das moléculas envolvidas na regulação do processo de apoptose.
Title in English
The effect of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors on the apoptosis machinery in chronic myeloid leukemia
Keywords in English
Apoptosis
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and gene expression
Abstract in English
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disease resultant of a clonal expansion of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. The CML physiopathology is associated with a translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 long arms, promoting the formation of a bcr-abl neogene, which codifies the Bcr-Abl protein. The Bcr-Abl oncoprotein presents tyrosine-kinase activity that is responsible for the malign phenotype which includes apoptosis resistance. CML treatment may be performed with hydroxyurea, IFN- plus cytarabine, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (imatinib mesylate and dasatinib) and bone marrow transplantation. The standard treatment for CML patients in chronic phase is the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM) and for IM-refractory patients dasatinibe is employed. Despite of the knowledge related to the mechanism of action of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors, little is known about its effects on the apoptosis machinery. In this work we characterized both the mRNA and protein patterns of expression of the anti- (A1, Bcl-2, Bcl-Xl, Bcl-W, C-Flip, Ciap-1, Ciap-2 e Mcl-1) and pro-apoptotic (Bad, Bak, Bax, Bcl-Xs, Bid, Bik, Bimel, Bmf, Bok, Fas, Fasl, Noxa e Puma) regulators in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 32 healthy individual and 26 CML patients before and after 12 months of imatinib mesylate and dasatinibe therapy. Thirteen patients were female and thirteen were male, three were black, one was japanese and 22 were white, the mean age was 48 years (varying from 25 to 77 years). The control group was composed of 32 individuals, 16 were female and 16 were male, 26 were white, four black and two japanese, the mean age was 45 years (varying from 23 to 77 years). PBMC isolation was performed by Ficoll-Hypaque, gene expression was assessed by real time PCR and protein expression was carried out by western-blot methodology. Results were given by the relative expression, after comparison between the different groups (control and patients before and after treatment), associated with drug response and related to Sokal index. The comparison of gene expression profiles between patients and controls showed that CML patients present increased levels of bcl-xL, c-flip, mcl-1 and fas expression and reduced levels of bik gene expression. The imatinib mesylate significantly modulated the transcription of bcl-xL, bok, mcl-1 and noxa, whereas dasatinib affected the expression of a1, bmf, c-flip, ciap-1, ciap-2 and mcl-1. MI-refractory patients present higher levels of a1 and c-flip and lower levels of bcl-2, ciap-2, bak, bax, bid and fasl when compared to patients who achieved complete cytogenetic response. Overall, the patterns of protein expression agree with the profiles of mRNA expression. Taken together, the results described in this investigation indicate that PBMC from CML patients present deregulation in cell death pathways. These alterations could partly account for the apoptosis resistance phenotype observed in Bcr-Abl+ leukemic cells and for lack of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, our data also reveal that tyrosine kinase inhibitors interfere in the transcription and translation of molecules that regulate the apoptosis process.
 
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Dissertacao.pdf (2.22 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2009-04-09
 
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