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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.60.2017.tde-04052017-111344
Document
Author
Full name
Mario Henrique Paziani
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Kress, Marcia Regina von Zeska (President)
Malavazi, Iran
Ferreira, Marcia Eliana da Silva
Marins, Mozart de Azevedo
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização funcional dos genes codificadores de proteínas ADP-Ribosylation Factor no fungo filamentoso patogênico Aspergillus fumigatus
Keywords in Portuguese
ADP ribosylation fator
Aspergillus fumigatus
Crescimento apical
Endocitose
Exocitose
Parede celular
Pequenas proteínas G
Abstract in Portuguese
Os fungos filamentosos passam por um crescimento polarizado, desde a germinação ao alongamento das hifas, até formar um complexo micélio. A região apical do crescimento polarizado do fungo apresenta dois tipos diferentes de vesículas, entre elas, as microvesículas. As ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), são proteínas monoméricas ligadoras de GTP e pertence ao grupo de proteínas da superfamília Ras. Essas proteínas são divididas em cinco famílias: ARF, RAB, RAN, RAS e RHO que formam um conjunto de sub-sistemas que são responsáveis, entre outras funções, pela regulação do transporte de vesículas no interior da célula fúngica, entre outras funções, como transduções de sinais e regulação do tráfego vesicular na região de crescimento apical, o spitzenkörper. São proteínas de ancoramento e de marcação de vesículas, envolvidas no tráfego, catálise e fusão por meio de sinalização de membrana-alvo para as vesículas de transporte transmembrana. As ARF são importantes para o crescimento das hifas, além de participar da montagem de vesículas por meio de endocitoses, do transporte destas vesículas entre as organelas e na exocitose. Adicionalmente, as ARFs sofrem o processo de N-miristoilação, uma irreversível lipidação proteica em que o miristato do miristoil CoA é covalentemente ligado a uma glicina secundária da proteína alvo, aumentando a sua hidrofobicidade. Além desta regulação, as ARFs são moduladas pela ação das ARF-GAP (GTPase Activating Protein) e ARF-GEFs (Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor). Neste trabalho foi proposta a deleção de três ARFs preditivamente miristoiladas (arfA, arfB and arlA), além de dupla-deleção com ?gcsA (ARF-GAP) e a caracterização genotípica e fenotípica das ADP ribosylation fator no fungo filamentoso patogênico Aspergillus fumigatus. Como caracterização das linhagens deletadas, notou-se que arfA demonstra ser essencial para A. fumigatus, enquanto que o fungo foi capaz de se desenvolver na ausência de arfB, arlA e duplo mutantes com ?gcsA. Porém, de forma alternada nas linhagens mutantes, houve redução do diâmetro da colônia, desestruturação de conidióforos, polarização dicotômica e redução de corpos lipídicos na região de crescimento apical. Além das alterações da parede celular que implicou em altações na carga de superfície, formação de biofilme e virulência. Testes de sensibilidades, bem como as análises de níveis de expressão gênica frente a a compostos danosos a eucariotos e antifúngicos evidenciaram que as ARFs e GcsA estão envolvidas em reparos a danos frente a diferentes alvos citoplasmáticos. Ainda, a localização das ARFs fusionadas com GFP (Green Flourescence Protein) em A. fumigatus evidenciou que ArfB está nas regiões apicais das hifas e conidióforos, enquanto ArlA está distribuído em todo citoplasma. Portanto as ARFs em A. fumigatus estão envolvidas nos processos básicos do fungo, como: o crescimento, a virulência e a reprodução
Title in English
Functional characterization of the genes which encodes ADP-Ribosylation Factor protein of the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus
Keywords in English
ADP ribosylation fator
Apical growth
Aspergillus fumigatus
Cell wall
Endocytosis
Exocytosis
Small G protein
Vesicular transport
Abstract in English
The filamentous fungi undergo polarized growth, from germination to hyphae elongation, to form a mycelial complex. The apical region of the polarized growth of the fungus presents two different types of vesicles, among them, the microvesicles. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are monomeric GTP-binding proteins and belong to a group of superfamily Ras proteins. These proteins are divided into five families: ARF, RAB, RAN, RAS and RHO that form a set of subsystems that are responsible, over others things, for the regulation of vesicle transport within the fungal cell, among other functions, such as signal transduction and regulation of the vesicular traffic in the apical growth region, the Spitzenkörper. They are anchoring and vesicle marking proteins involved in trafficking, catalysis and fusion by means of target membrane signaling to the transmembrane transport vesicles. ARFs are important for the growth of hyphae, besides participating in vesicle assembly through endocytosis, the transport of these vesicles between the organelles and exocytosis. In addition, the ARFs undergo the N-myristoylation process, an irreversible protein lipidation in which the myristoyl CoA myristate is covalently linked to a secondary glycine of the target protein, increasing its hydrophobicity. In addition to this regulation, the Arfs are modulated by the action of Arf-GAP (GTPase Activating Protein) and ARF-GEFs (Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor). In this work, the deletion of three myristoylated ARFs (arfA, arfB and arlA), as well as double-deletion with ?gcsA (ARF-GAP) and phenotypic and genotypic characterization of ADP ribosylation fator in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus was proposed. As a characterization of the deleted strains, arfA shown to be essential for A. fumigatus, whereas the fungus was able to develop in the absence of arfB, arlA and double mutants with ?gcsA. However, in the mutant strains, there was a decrease in colony diameter, deconjugation of conidiophores, dichotomous polarization and reduction of lipid bodies in the apical growth region. In addition, cell wall changes were registered that implied in surface charge elevations, biofilm formation and virulence. In tests of sensitivities, as well as the analysis of levels of gene expression against compounds harmful to eukaryotes and antifungals showed that ARFs and GcsA (Arf-GAP) are involved in damage repair against different cytoplasmic targets. Furthermore, the location of the GFP-fused GFPs (Green Flourescence Protein) in A. fumigatus evidenced that ArfB is in the apical regions of the hyphae and conidiophores, while ArlA is diffuse in every cytoplasm. Therefore, the ARFs in A. fumigatus are involved in the basic processes of the fungus, such as growth, virulence and reproduction
 
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Release Date
2019-05-04
Publishing Date
2017-07-21
 
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