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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.60.2014.tde-31102014-100157
Document
Author
Full name
Marília Oliveira de Almeida
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Pupo, Monica Tallarico (President)
Araujo, Angela Regina
Debonsi, Hosana Maria
Gallo, Margareth Borges Coutinho
Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo de
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação do efeito de moduladores epigenéticos na biossíntese de produtos naturais em fungos
Keywords in Portuguese
biossíntese
fungo fitopatogênico
fungos endofíticos
moduladores epigenéticos
produtos naturais microbianos
Abstract in Portuguese
A manipulação seletiva de alvos epigenéticos usando pequenas moléculas inibidoras das enzimas histona-desacetilases (HDACs) e DNA metiltransferases (DNMTs) é uma estratégia para estimular a expressão das vias biossintéticas e a produção de novos metabólitos secundários em fungos. Neste trabalho, inibidores de histonadesacetilases (butirato de sódio, ácido hidroxâmico suberoilanilida e ácido valproico) e inibidores de DNA metiltransferases (5-azacitidina, hidralazina, procaína e procainamida) foram suplementados em culturas líquidas e sólidas dos fungos endofíticos Fusarium oxysporum SS46, Hyphodermella corrugata FLe8.2 e Chaetomium globosum VR10, das linhagens comerciais Fusarium oxysporum ATCC MYA 4623 e Chaetomium globosum ATCC 56726 e do fitopatógeno Botrytis cinerea B0510. O fungo endofítico H. corrugata FLe8.2, em meio PDB, produziu o composto 2-(2-metoxifenil)-4H-piran-4-ona, e sua cultura em meio Czapek suplementada com hidralazina levou ao isolamento de 3-metil-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]-ftalazina. O tratamento de F. oxysporum SS46 e F. oxysporum ATCC MYA 4623 com hidralazina em meio Czapek levou ao isolamento de um novo composto, 2H-[1,2,4]triazino[3,4- a]-ftalazina. Nestas culturas houve biotransformação da hidralazina pelos fungos, provavelmente como mecanismo de desintoxicação. Ainda, a hidralazina teve um efeito inibidor sobre a biossíntese do ciclohexadepsipeptídeo beauvericina em F. oxysporum SS46. Nas culturas de C. globosum VR10 em meio Czapek os inibidores de HDACs e de DNMTs suprimiram a biossíntese de chaetoglobosinas. A adição de ácido valproico na cultura de C. globosum VR10 em meio PDB eliciou a produção da chaetoviridina B. A adição de 5-azacitidina nas culturas de C. globosum VR10 em meio sólido PDA não modificou a produção da chaetoglosina A. A produção de chaetoviridina B por C. globosum ATCC 56726 em meio PDA foi inibida na menor concentração de 5-azacitidina, 50 ?M, e retomada na concentração de 150 ?M. O tratamento de B. cinerea B0510 com ácido hidroxâmico suberoilanilida SAHA levou à biossíntese de um novo composto, ácido 5-benzil-2,3-di-hidroxi-3-isopropil-4- oxotetrahidrofuran-2-carboxílico, o qual também foi isolado da linhagem geneticamente modificada B. cinerea Bc ?STC2. No geral, considerando as linhagens fúngicas estudadas, os resultados mostram que a adição de moduladores químicos que atuam em mecanismos epigenéticos promove mudanças no perfil de metabólitos secundários.
Title in English
Evaluation of the effect of epigenetic modifiers in the biosynthesis of fungal natural products.
Keywords in English
biosynthesis
endophytic fungi
epigenetic modifiers
microbial natural products
pathogenic fungus.
Abstract in English
The selective manipulation of epigenetic targets using small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activities is a strategy to elicit the expression of biosynthetic pathways and production of new secondary metabolites in fungi. In this work, HDAC inhibitors (sodium butyrate, suberohydroxamic acid and valproic acid) and DNMT inhibitors (5-azacitidine, hydralazine, procaine and procainamide) were supplemented in liquid and solid cultures of the endophytic fungi Fusarium oxysporum SS46, Hyphodermella corrugata FLe8.2 and Chaetomium globosum VR10, of the commercial fungal strains Fusarium oxysporum ATCC MYA 4623 and Chaetomium globosum ATCC 56726 and of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea B0510. The endophytic fungus H. corrugata FLe8.2 produced 2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4H-pyran-4-one in PDB medium, while in the presence of hydralazine in Czapek medium the fungus produced 3- methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-a]-phthalazine. Treatment of F. oxysporum SS46 and F. oxysporum ATCC MYA 4623 with hydralazine in a Czapek medium led to the isolation of new compound, 2H-[1,2,4]triazino[3,4-a]-phthalazine. Hydralazine was biotransformed by these three fungi probably as a detoxification strategy. In addition, hydralazine also inhibited the biosynthesis of the cyclodepsipeptide beauvericin by F. oxysporum SS46. HDAC and DNMT inhibitors suppressed chaetoglobosins' biosynthesis by C. globosum VR10 cultures in Czapek medium. The biosynthesis of chaetoviridin B by C. globosum VR10 was elicited by acid valproic in PDB medium. The production of chaetogosin A by C. globosum VR10 in PDA medium has not been affected by 5-azacitidine. The biosynthesis of chaetoviridin B by C. globosum ATCC 56726 in PDA medium was inhibited in the presence of lower concentration 5- azacitidine (50 ?M) and recovered in the higher concentration (150 ?M). Treatment of B. cinerea B0510 with suberohydroxamic acid led to the biosynthesis of the new compound 5-benzyl-2,3-dihydroxy-3-isopropyl-4-oxotetrahydrofuran-2-carboxylic acid, which was also isolated from the genetically modified strain B. cinerea Bc ?STC2. Results showed that chemical compounds that act in epigenetic mechanisms can induce changes in the secondary metabolite profiles in the fungal strains studied in this work.
 
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Release Date
2018-10-30
Publishing Date
2014-11-28
 
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