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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.64.2009.tde-04042011-142159
Document
Author
Full name
Carlos Alberto Baca Maldonado
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Abreu Junior, Cassio Hamilton (President)
Berton, Ronaldo Severiano
Fortes Neto, Paulo
Oliveira, Fernando Carvalho
Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez
Title in Portuguese
Fertilidade do solo, nutrição e crescimento de plantas de eucalipto ao longo de 46 meses após aplicação de lodo de esgoto
Keywords in Portuguese
Impactos ambientais
Matéria orgânica do solo
Nutrientes minerais do solo
Reciclagem de resíduos urbanos
Resíduos sólidos urbanos
Abstract in Portuguese
Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da aplicação de lodo de esgoto, com ou sem adubo nitrogenado e, ou, fosfatado, sobre os atributos químicos do solo e o crescimento e nutrição de plantas de eucaliptos até aos 46 meses após aplicação do resíduo. Em dezembro de 2004 foi estabelecido um experimento de campo com quatro doses de lodo de esgoto (0; 7,7; 15,1 e 23,1 t ha-1, base seca, equivalentes a 0, 50, 100 e 150% do recomendado, com base no critério do N), nitrogênio (0; 46,9; 95,1 e 142 kg ha-1, equivalentes a 0, 33, 67 e 100% do N recomendado) e fósforo (0; 27,7; 53,6 e 84 kg ha-1, equivalentes a 0, 33, 67 e 100% do P2O5 recomendado), em esquema fatorial 4x4x4, com confundimento e duas repetições. Devido ao baixo teor de potássio no lodo, foi aplicado 188 kg ha-1 de K2O (100% do recomendado) em todas as parcelas. Foram realizadas coletas de solo aos 4, 14, 21 e 34 meses após a aplicação do lodo, nas camadas de 0-0,10; 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,40 m de profundidade, exceto aos 4 meses que foi feita até 90 cm de profundidade. Nas amostras coletadas aos 4 e aos 34 meses foram realizadas análises de pH em CaCl2, N-total, P (resina), Ca, Mg e K trocáveis, acidez total e matéria orgânica. Aos 14, 21 e 34 meses foram determinados o N-amoniacal e N-nitrato pelo método Kjeldahl. Teores extraíveis de Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn foram obtidos pelo método do DTPA e teores semitotais, por solubilização ácida (HNO3 + HCl), em forno microondas, sendo os elementos quantificados por espectrometria de massa com plasma (ICP-MS). Análises de amostras de folhas foram feitas aos 4 e 43 meses, de amostras de folhedo, trimestralmente e de amostras de serapilheira, aos 46 meses após aplicação do lodo, para determinar macro e micronutrientes. A decomposição do folhedo (método de bolsas de decomposição) foi avaliada aos 45, 90, 160, 230 e 300 dias. A altura e o diâmetro na altura do peito das árvores foram medidos aos 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 33 e 44 meses após plantio, e, então, determinado o volume de madeira. Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados por modelos de superfície de respostas, em função das doses de lodo, nitrogênio e fósforo. As doses de lodo promoveram melhorias nos atributos de fertilidade do solo. Os teores de C-orgânico e de P, K, Ca e Mg trocáveis aumentaram na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade. Os teores de Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn, extraíveis e semitotais, aumentaram nas camadas até 40 cm de profundidade. Os teores de C-orgânico aos 34 meses foram superiores aos teores obtidos aos 4 meses, enquanto que os valores de pH diminuíram. Os teores de N total e amoniacal aumentaram com as doses de lodo e de fertilizante nitrogenado, com maior acúmulo na camada de 0-10 cm. Não foi observado potencial de lixiviação de N-NO3-. As doses de lodo aumentaram os teores de N e de P nas folhas do eucalipto, assim como o adubo nitrogenado e fosfatado, respectivamente, mantendo teores adequados nas folhas recém-maduras do eucalipto. Os teores de Cu, Mn, Fe e Zn nas folhas de eucalipto foram aumentadas com as doses de lodo e se correlacionam com teores desses metais extraídos do solo com DTPA. O estudo de superfície de resposta, permitiu constatar que a aplicação de lodo, com base na dose recomendada pelo critério do N, pode propiciar a redução de 33% no uso do adubo fosfatado e 100% do adubo nitrogenado, sem prejuízos ao crescimento e à nutrição do eucalipto, com aumento da produtividade de madeira
Title in English
Soil fertility, plant nutrition and growth of eucalyptus after 46 months of sewage sludge application
Keywords in English
Environment impacts
Soil minerals nutrients
Soil organic matter
Urban solid waste
Urban waste recycling
Abstract in English
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge, with or without mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer on the soil chemical properties, nutrition and growth of Eucalyptus plants up to 46 months after sewage sludge application. Therefore, in December 2004 was established a field experiment with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 7.7, 15.1 and 23.1 t ha-1, dry base), N (0, 46.9; 95.1 and 142 kg ha 1) and phosphorus (0, 27.7, 53.6 and 84 kg ha-1 P2O5), in a randomized block design in factorial design 4x4x4 with two repetitions. Due to low content of potassium (K) in the sewage sludge was applied 188 kg ha-1 K2O in all plots. Samples of soil were collected at 4, 14, 21 and 34 months after sludge application, from the 0-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m layers, except at 4 months which was made up to 0.90 m depth. Samples collected at 4 and 34 months were analyzed for pH in CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1, total N, available P (resin), Ca, Mg and K contents, total acidity and organic matter. At 14, 21 and 34 months were determined ammonia-N and nitrate-N by the Kjeldahl method. Extractable Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were obtained using the DTPA solution, and semi-total levels dissolution by acid (HNO3 + HCl), in a microwave oven, and analyzed by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Analysis of leaf samples were made at 4 and 43 months, samples of leaf litter, quarterly and litter at 46 months after sludge application, to determine macro and micronutrients. The decomposition of leaf litter (method of decomposition bags) was evaluated at 45, 90, 160, 230 and 300 days. The height and diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees were measured at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 33 and 44 months after planting, and then determined the volume of wood. The results were evaluated by surface models of responses, depending on the sludge doses, nitrogen and phosphorus. The growth of the plants was adjusted by growth curves. The sludge application promoted improvements in the attributes of soil fertility. The content of organic C and P, K, Ca and Mg increased in the 0 to 10 cm depth. The contents of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, extractable and semitotals increased in layers up to 40 cm depth. The levels of organic C to 34 months were higher than levels found at 4 months, while the pH decreased. The levels of total N and ammonia increased with doses of sludge and fertilizer, with higher accumulation at 0-10 cm. There was no potential leaching of N-NO3-. Both the sludge as fertilizer applied increases the levels of N and P of eucalyptus leaves, maintaining appropriate levels in recently matured leaves. The Cu, Mn, Fe and Zn in eucalyptus leaves were increased with sludge doses and are correlated with concentrations of DTPA metals extracted from soil. The response surfaces study, allowed to prove that the application of sludge, based on the recommended dose by the N criterion, can provide a 33% reduction in the phosphate fertilizer and 100% of nitrogen fertilizer, without damage to the eucalyptus nutrition and growth, with increase wood productivity.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-04-07
 
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