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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.64.2008.tde-04122008-114833
Document
Author
Full name
Tatiana Marsola
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Muraoka, Takashi (President)
Ambrosano, Edmilson José
Boaretto, Antonio Enedi
Bull, Leonardo Theodoro
Kamogawa, Marcos Yassuo
Title in Portuguese
Mineralização de fósforo do adubo verde e sua absorção por plantas de arroz
Keywords in Portuguese
32P
Aveia-preta
Crotalária
Fracionamento de P
Marcação de plantas
Milheto
Nabo forrageiro
Períodos de incubação
Abstract in Portuguese
Em sistemas de plantio direto, o material vegetal incorporado libera fósforo solúvel no solo, porém, sua absorção por plantas subseqüentes ainda é pouco conhecida. Parte do fósforo nos tecidos vegetais está na forma de compostos insolúveis, que precisam ser mineralizados para serem absorvidos pelas plantas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estabelecer a melhor época de aplicação de 32P para marcação de plantas de adubo verde; determinar as formas de P nas plantas; determinar as principais formas de fósforo no solo após a incorporação de diferentes espécies de adubo verde; estimar a eficiência dos adubos verdes no fornecimento de P para plantas de arroz, e determinar a relação entre as formas de P nas plantas de adubo verde e sua mineralização no solo. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em duas etapas. Na Etapa 1 foram marcadas com 32P plantas de aveia-preta, milheto e nabo forrageiro na semeadura e aos 14, 28 e 42 dias. Estas plantas foram incubadas e utilizadas como adubo verde no cultivo de arroz. As plantas de arroz apresentaram eficiência de utilização de P semelhantes para adubos verdes marcados até 28 dias, podendo ser utilizada uma atividade 75% menor para marcação dessas espécies. Na etapa 2 foram cultivadas plantas de aveia-preta, crotalária e nabo forrageiro marcadas com 32P aos 14 dias. Foi verificado que a maioria do P nas plantas está na forma solúvel, correspondendo em média 67% do 32Pt. Essas plantas foram incubadas por 20, 40 e 60 dias e cultivadas plantas de arroz. A eficiência de utilização do P proveniente de adubo verde foi maior para incubação por 20 e 60 dias, diminuindo consideravelmente para incubação por 40 dias. Foram determinadas as frações de P no solo incubado com adubo verde nos diferentes períodos de incubação, utilizando o método de Hedley. A fração Pi-resina e P-NaHCO3, que correspondem ao P-lábil, apresentaram as maiores atividades específicas, demonstrando que a maior parte do P solúvel do adubo verde são encontrados nessas frações. A fração Po-NaOH apresentou as maiores concentrações de P, enquanto as menores foram encontradas na fração P-HCl
Title in English
Mineralization of green manure phosphorus and its absorption by rice plants
Keywords in English
Black oat
Incubation periods
Labelling with 32P
Millet
P fractionation
Sunnyhemp
Turnip
Abstract in English
In no-tillage systems, plant materials incorporated into soil release soluble phosphorus, but its absorption by subsequent plants is not completely clarified. A fraction of phosphorus in vegetal tissues is in the form of insoluble species, which require mineralization to be absorbed by plants. The aims of this work were to establish the best period for 32P application for green manure labeling; to determine the forms of P in plants and in soil after incorporation of different green manures; to estimate the efficiency of green manures for supplying phosphorus to rice plants and to determine the relationship between the P species in green manure and their mineralization in soil. The experiments were carried out in two steps. In the first, plants of black oat, millet and turnip were labeled with 32P at sowing and after 14, 28 and 42 days. These plants were incubated and used as green manure for rice plants. The rice plants showed similar utilization efficiencies of P form green manure plants labeled up to 28 days, making possible the use of a 75% lower activity to label these plants. In step two, black oat, sunnyhemp and turnip plants labeled with 32P after 14 days from sowing were grown. It was verified that the more significant fraction of P in plants is in the soluble form, corresponding in average 67% of 32Pt. These plants were incubated for 20, 40 and 60 days before culturing rice plants. The utilization efficiency of P from green manure sources was higher when the material was incubated for 20 and 60 days, being considerably reduced for 40 days incubation. The P-fractions in the soil incubated with green manure in different periods were determined by the Hedley method. The Pi-resin and P-NaHCO3 fractions, which correspond to labile P, showed the highest specific activities, because the most significant part of the soluble P was found in these fractions. The Po-NaOH fraction showed the highest concentrations of P, while the lowest amounts were in the P-HCl fraction
 
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Publishing Date
2008-12-15
 
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