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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.64.2016.tde-11112016-091819
Document
Author
Full name
Érika Breda Canova
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Louvandini, Helder (President)
Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do
Katiki, Luciana Morita
Minho, Alessandro Pelegrine
Yoshihara, Eidi
Title in Portuguese
Eficiência de plantas taniníferas no controle de helmintos gastrintestinais de ovinos
Keywords in Portuguese
Amendoim forrageiro
Compostos fitoquimícos
Ovinocultura
Pau Brasil
Sustentabilidade
Abstract in Portuguese
Os endoparasitas têm demonstrado resistência aos principais anti-helmínticos. Por isso é necessário investigar estratégias sustentáveis, sendo uma das alternativas a utilização de plantas leguminosas (Fabaceae) no controle de nematóides. Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica de 17 extratos de plantas no teste de inibição da eclodibilidade dos ovos, teste de inibição de desembainhamento de larvas de Haemonchus contortus e o teste de motilidade do Caenorhabditis elegans, in vitro. As duas melhores plantas foram levadas para teste in vivo (Arachis pintoi cv Amarillo e Caesalpinia echinata). Os extratos foram feitos a partir das folhas de Arachis pintoi cv Amarillo, Caesalpinia echinata, Cajanus cajan, Calopogonium velutinum, Canavalia ensiformis, Centrosema pubencens cv Cardillo, Cratylia mollis, Dipteryx alata, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala cv Cunningham, Leucaena pulverulenta, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Neonotonia wighiti cv Cianova, Noenotonia wighiti cv Tinaroo, Piptadenia colubrina, Stylosanthes guianensis e Styzolobium aterrimun, as quais foram coletadas no campo agrostológico do Instituto de Zootecnia em Nova Odessa/SP. Seus princípios ativos foram extraídos em solução de acetona:água 70:30, solvente retirado por rotaevaporação, seguido por lavagem com diclorometano e liofilizado. Os resultados obtidos para o TIEO, TIDL e para o TMCE foram baseados na concentração letal de 50% (CL50), maior concentração testada 50 mg/mL e a menor 0,0975 mg/mL nos TIEO e TIDL, e TMCE a maior foi 50 mg/mL e a menor 0,039 mg/mL. Em ordem da maior para menor eficácia no TIEO foram para o extrato de P. colubrina (0,10 mg/mL), extrato de C. echinata (0,17 mg/mL) e extrato M. caesalpiniaefolia (0,53 mg/mL). Os resultados do TIDL em ordem da maior para menor eficácia foram para o extrato de S. guianensis (0,51 mg/mL), extrato de A. pintoi cv Amarillo (1,04 mg/mL) e extrato de C. echinata (1,25 mg/mL). O resultado obtido com maior eficiência na CL50 do TMCE foi o extrato de C. echinata (0,49 mg/mL), o extrato de M. caesalpiniaefolia (1,03 mg/mL), extrato de Dipteryx alata (1,50 mg/mL) e extrato de P. colubrina (1,56 mg/mL). Para o experimento in vivo utilizou-se 30 ovinos, PV médio de 32 kg (+/- 0,59), mestiços Dorper/Santa Inês, machos, não castrados. Animais foram divididos em três tratamentos: A. pintoi (A), C. echinata (B) e controle (C) infectados sem tratamento, cada tratamento continha 10 animais. Animais dos tratamentos A e B foram tratados com 10 g da planta moída juntamente no concentrado. Foram colhidos sangue e fezes para análises. Final do experimento os animais foram abatidos e abomaso lavado para a recuperação dos H. contortus. O tratamento A obteve resultado significativo de OPG (1015) quando comparado com OPG dos tratamentos B (1244) e C (1537). O comprimento dos nematóides machos (A = 1,24 cm; B = 1,31 e C = 1,35) e fêmeas (A = 1,83 cm; B = 1,91 e C = 1,97) encontrados em cada tratamento teve diferença significativa, sendo a quantidade de nematóides do tratamento A menores. Conclui-se que o experimento com a planta A. pintoi foi que propiciou redução no OPG e comprimento dos nematóides sugerindo ação anti-helmíntica com potencial de uso no controle sustentável desta verminose
Title in English
Tanniferous plants (leguminous) efficiency for controlling gastrointestinal parasitism of sheep
Keywords in English
Brazilwood
Peanut forage
Phytochemical compounds
Sheep
Sustainability
Abstract in English
Endoparasites have demonstrated resistance to the main anthelmintics found in the Market and new sustainable strategies are needed to control them. This work aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of 17 extracts of taniniferous plants that belongs to the Fabaceae family by in vitro egg hatch test (EHT), larval exsheathment test (LET) with Haemonchus contortus and larval motility test (LMT) with Caenorhabditis elegans. Arachis pintoi cv Amarillo and Caesalpinia echinata. Arachis pintoi cv Amarillo, Caesalpinia echinata, Cajanus cajan, Calopogonium velutinum, Canavalia ensiformis, Centrosema pubencens cv Cardillo, Cratylia mollis, Dipteryx alata, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala cv Cunningham, Leucaena pulverulenta, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Neonotonia wighiti cv Cianova, Noenotonia wighiti cv Tinaroo, Piptadenia colubrina, Stylosanthes guianensis and Styzolobium aterrimun were collected from Agrostological field from Instituto de Zootecnia (Nova Odessa/SP). The phytochemicals were extracted by maceration in acetone:water (70:30). The acetone was rotoevaporated and the aqueous extract was cleared with dicloromethane. The remaining extract was liofilized and kept frozen until the use in vitro tests. EHT, LET were performed with doses ranging from 50 mg/mL to 0.0975 mg/mL and LMT with doses ranging from 50 mg/mL to 0.039 mg/mL. LC50 were calculated to compare efficacies. The extracts P. colubrina (0.1 mg/mL), C. echinata (0.17 mg/mL) and M. caesalpiniaefolia (0.53 mg/mL) presented the best results in EHT. L. pulverulenta, C. cajan, C. mollis and S. aterrimun were not effective at the higher dose in EHT (50 mg/mL). In the LET the extracts of S. guianensis (0.51mg/mL), A. pintoi cv Amarillo (1.04 mg/mL) and C. echinata (1.25 mg/mL) had the best results. In LMT, the extracts of C. echinata (0.49 mg/mL), M. caesalpiniaefolia (1.03 mg/mL), D. alata (1.5 mg/mL) and P. colubrina (1.56 mg/mL) had the best results. A. pintoi and C. echinata were chosen to be tested in vivo. In order to evaluate the plants over lambs infected with parasites, 30 lambs with average body weight of 32 kg (+/- 0,59 kg), Dorper x Santa Ines, male and not castrated were divided equaly in 3 treatments: (A) A. pintoi 10 g/day, (B) C. echinata 10 g/day and (C) control. The plants were grinded and mixed with concentrate and offered during all experiment. Blood and feces were collected for analysis. At the end of experimental period, animals were slaughtered and H. contortus were recovered from abomasum for counts, measurements and evaluation of female fertility (count of eggs). Treatment (A) with A. pintoi had lower FEC (1015) when compared with (B) C. echinata with FEC of 1244 and (C) Control with FEC of 1537 (P<0.05). The length of male worms (A = 1,24 cm; B = 1,31 cm e C = 1,35 cm) and female (A = 1,83 cm; B = 1,91 cm e C = 1,97 cm) presented differences (P<0.05), as the (A) group present smaller length. It was concluded that A. pintoi cv Amarillo reduced FEC and the size of the worms suggesting potencial anthelmintic effect in the sustainable control of parasites
 
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Publishing Date
2016-11-29
 
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