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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.64.2018.tde-04052018-092432
Document
Author
Full name
Samara Soares
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Rocha, Fabio Rodrigo Piovezani (President)
Nobrega, Joaquim de Araujo
Rohwedder, Jarbas José Rodrigues
Title in Portuguese
Desenvolvimento de procedimentos analíticos rápidos para o controle de qualidade de biodiesel
Keywords in Portuguese
Biodiesel
Índice de iodo
Química analítica limpa.
Teor de éster
Abstract in Portuguese
A presente dissertação apresenta os resultados referentes ao desenvolvimento de procedimentos analíticos para a determinação de índice de iodo em biodiesel e óleo vegetal e do teor de éster em biodiesel e em misturas biodiesel:diesel. O primeiro procedimento para a determinação de índice de iodo foi baseado na descoloração de uma solução de I3- monitorada por espectrofotometria. Para amostras de biodiesel e óleo vegetal, foram obtidas respostas lineares nos intervalos de 10-106 g I2/100 g e 20-144 g I2/100 g, respectivamente. O coeficiente de variação (n = 10) e o limite de detecção (99,7% nível de confiança) foram estimados em 5,0% e 2,5 g I2/100 g para amostras de biodiesel, enquanto para amostras de óleos vegetais os valores foram 3,0% e 7 g I2/100 g, respectivamente. Foram consumidos ca. 1,2 mL de amostra, 0,365 mg de I2 e 40 mg de KI, e gerado ca. 2,2 mL de resíduo por determinação. Efeitos de matriz foram constatados e superados por calibração com compatibilização de matriz. Alternativamente, foi desenvolvimento um spot test utilizando imagens digitais, também baseado no consumo de I2 pelos compostos insaturados presentes na amostra, porém envolvendo a deposição de alíquotas de reagente em papel de filtro e a medida do I2 remanescente, na forma do complexo com amido. As medidas foram realizadas com a câmera de um celular e tratadas como reflectância. Resposta linear foi obtida entre 10-106 g I2/100 g de biodiesel, com coeficiente de variação (n = 10) e limite de detecção (99,7% nível de confiança) estimados em 5,0% e 8 g I2/100 g, respectivamente. Foram consumidos 40 ?L de amostra e 50 ?g de I2 e gerado 65 ?L de resíduo por determinação. A determinação do teor de éster baseou-se na formação do complexo violeta entre Fe(III) e hidroxamato, gerado pela reação entre os ésteres de alquila da amostra e hidroxilamina. Foi utilizado um sistema de análises de fluxo, explorando o processo lab-in-syringe, com etanol como solvente mediador para gerar uma única fase entre a amostra hidrofóbica e os reagentes hidrofílicos. Respostas lineares foram obtidas nos intervalos 4-99% (v/v) e 2-40% (v/v) para biodiesel e mistura biodiesel:diesel, respectivamente. Para as amostras de biodiesel, o coeficiente de variação, o limite de detecção e a frequência de amostragem foram estimados em 0,80% (n = 10), 0,36% e 15 h-1, respectivamente, enquanto para a mistura biodiesel:diesel foram 0,20%, 0,03% (v/v) e 12 h-1, respectivamente. Foram consumidos 40 ?L de amostra de biodiesel e 100 ?L da mistura biodiesel:diesel, 0,860 mg de hidroxilamina, 0,145 mg Fe e gerado ca. 3 mL de resíduo. Os resultados obtidos em todos os procedimentos foram concordantes com os obtidos em procedimentos de referência com 95% de confiança. Os procedimentos desenvolvidos são práticos e viáveis para análises on-line e at-line, além de consumirem pequenas quantidades de solventes orgânicos e reagentes e gerarem pequenos volumes de resíduos
Title in English
Fast analytical procedures for biodiesel quality control
Keywords in English
Biodiesel
Ester content
Green analytical chemistry
Iodine value
Abstract in English
The present dissertation is focused on the development of analytical procedures for the determination of iodine value in biodiesel and vegetable oils as well as of ester content in biodiesel and biodiesel:diesel blends. The procedure for the determination of iodine value was based on discoloration of a triiodide solution measured by spectrophotometry. For biodiesel and vegetable oil samples, linear responses were obtained from 10-106 g I2/100 g and 20-144 g I2/100 g, respectively. The coefficient of variation (n = 10) and limit of detection (99.7% confidence level) were 5.0% and 2.5 g I2/100 g, whereas for vegetable oils, the values were 3.0% and 7 g I2/100 g, respectively. About 1.2 mL of sample, 0.365 mg of I2 and 40 mg of KI were consumed per determination, with generation of ca. 2.2 mL of waste. Matrix effects were circumvented by matrix matching. Alternatively, a spot test using digital images was developed, also based on consumption of iodine by unsaturated compounds in the samples, but relying on deposition of reagent aliquots on a filter paper followed by measurement of remaining iodine, through its complex formed with starch. The measurements were performed with a cell phone camera and treated as reflectance. A linear response was obtained within 10 and 106 g I2/100 g of biodiesel. The coefficient of variation (n = 10) and limit of detection were (99.7% confidence level) estimated at 4.9% and 8 g I2/100 g, respectively. About 40 ?L of sample and 50 ?g of I2 were consumed per determination, with generation of ca. 65 ?L of waste per determination. Ester determination was based on reaction of alkyl esters from biodiesel and hydroxylamine, yielding hydroxamate, which was measured by spectrophotometry as an iron(III) complex. The flow-based procedure exploited the lab-in-syringe approach, by using ethanol as mediator solvent to generate a single phase between the hydrophobic sample and the hydrophilic reagents. Linear responses were obtained from 4 to 99% (v/v) and 2 to 40% (v/v) for biodiesel and biodiesel:diesel blends, respectively. For biodiesel samples the coefficient of variation (n = 10), detection limit (99.7% confidence level) and sampling rate were estimated at 0.80%, 0.36%, and 15 h-1, respectively, whereas for biodiesel:diesel blends, the corresponding values were 0.20%, 0.03% (v/v), and 12 h-1, respectively. About 40 µL of biodiesel or 100 µL biodiesel:diesel blends, 0.860 mg of hydroxylamine, and 0.145 mg Fe were consumed per determination, with generation of ca. 3 mL of waste. The results obtained by all the proposed procedures agreed with the reference ones at the 95% confidence level. The proposed procedures are practical and feasible for on-line or at-line analysis, by consuming only low amounts of organic solvents and reagents, and generating low waste volumes
 
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Publishing Date
2018-05-21
 
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