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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.64.2011.tde-08022012-110540
Document
Author
Full name
Tatiana Mitsusaki Ricci Xavier
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Bendassolli, Jose Albertino (President)
Kamogawa, Marcos Yassuo
Micaroni, Regina Clélia da Costa Mesquita
Title in Portuguese
Mineralização de timol e bisfenol-A via ozônio, radiação ultravioleta e peróxido de hidrogênio
Keywords in Portuguese
Efluentes
Fenóis
Qualidade da água
Química ambiental
Toxicologia ambiental
Tratamento químico da água
Abstract in Portuguese
Com o intuito de viabilizar, ambiental e economicamente, a mineralização de substâncias fenólicas presentes em águas e efluentes, foram estudadas as moléculas do timol (C10H14O TOH, a 200 mg L-1) e do bisfenol-A (C15H16O2 BPA, a 25 mg L-1) utilizando Processos Oxidativos Avançados (POA), no caso, ozônio (O3), radiação ultravioleta (UV) e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2) que, quando combinados, ou em condições específicas, promovem a geração de radicais hidroxila (OH), um poderoso oxidante. O sistema de tratamento utilizado foi desenvolvido no próprio Laboratório de Tratamento de Resíduos do CENA/USP. O TOH e o BPA foram submetidos a tratamento em pH 3 e 11, com O3 (1,98 g h-1) e UV (0, 8 e 32 watts). Adicionalmente, o TOH foi tratado também com H2O2 (0, 1.176 e 2.352 mg), totalizando 18 tratamentos para o TOH e 6 para o BPA. A eficiência dos tratamentos foi avaliada a partir da porcentagem de remoção do carbono orgânico total (TOC). Para ambas as moléculas, a combinação 1,98 g h-1 de O3, 32 watts UV e ausência de H2O2, em pH 3, apresentou os melhores resultados de conversão de TOC a CO2, especificamente 99,6 ± 0,6% em 90 minutos para o timol e 93,9 ± 0,6% de mineralização de bisfenol-A em 60 minutos de tratamento. Este tratamento foi então reproduzido no resíduo de timol gerado pelos laboratórios do CENA/USP e o resultado obtido foi de 92,64 ± 1,2%, um pouco inferior ao obtido para a solução de TOH, provavelmente devido à presença de outras substâncias. As soluções (TOH e BPA) e o resíduo (TOH) tratados foram submetidos à análise de fenóis totais, obtendo-se resultados inferiores ao exigido (0,5 mg L-1 de fenóis totais) pelas resoluções CONAMA 357/2005 e 397/2008 para a disposição em corpos hídricos. Realizaram-se também ensaios de toxicidade com os organismos Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna e Hydra attenuata (que representam os distintos níveis tróficos da cadeia alimentar), que evidenciaram redução da toxicidade das soluções de TOH e BPA após tratamento, sendo que o mesmo não ocorreu para o resíduo de timol, provavelmente devido à sua constituição. Os resultados indicam que o tempo de tratamento seria uma variável importante a ser estudada no tratamento dos resíduos de TOH gerados nos laboratórios do CENA/USP. Os POA (O3/UV e O3/UV/H2O2) propostos no presente trabalho mostraram-se uma alternativa adequada, eficiente e com custos competitivos em relação a outras tecnologias no tratamento destes compostos fenólicos
Title in English
Mineralization of thymol and bisphenol-A by ozone, ultraviolet radiation and hydrogen peroxide
Keywords in English
Environmental chemistry
Environmental toxicology
Phenols
Wastewater
Water chemical treatment
Water quality
Abstract in English
In order to facilitate, environmentally and economically the mineralization of phenolic substances present in water and wastewater, a study was carried out with the molecules of thymol (C10H14O TOH, in a concentration of 200 mg L-1) and bisphenol-A (C15H16O2 BPA, in a concentration of 25 mg L-1) using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP). The AOP used were ozone (O3), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which, when combined or in specific conditions, promote a hydroxyl radicals (OH) formation, a powerful oxidant. The line system used was developed in the Residues Treatment Laboratory at CENA/USP. The TOH and BPA were submitted to the treatment at pH 3 and 11, with O3 (1.98 g h-1) and UV (0.8 and 32 watts). Additionally, the TOH was also treated with H2O2 (0, 1,176 and 2,352 mg), totalizing 18 treatments for TOH and 6 for BPA. The treatments efficiency was assessed by the percentage of total organic carbon (TOC) removed. For both molecules, the combination of 1.98 g h-1 of O3, 32 watts of UV and absence of H2O2, at pH 3, showed the best conversion of TOC to CO2, specifically 99.6 ± 0.6% of TOH in 90 minutes and 93.9 ± 0.6% of BPA in 60 minutes of treatment. This treatment was reproduced in the TOH residue generated by the CENA/USP laboratories. The TOC removal was 92.6 ± 1.2%, slightly lower than that obtained for the solution of TOH, probably due to the presence of other substances. The solutions (BPA and TOH) and the residue (TOH) treated were submitted to the total phenols analysis, resulting in values lower than demanded (0.5 mg L-1 of total phenols) by the law in force (CONAMA 357/2005 and 397/2008), which regulates the discharge of wastewater in the environment. We carried out also toxicological tests with the organisms Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Hydra attenuate (representing species in different levels of the food chain). The toxicity of solutions (TOH and BPA) decreased after treatment, but the same results were not observed in the TOH residue, probably due to its composition. The results show that treatment time is an important variable that should be studied for treatment of TOH residue generated in the CENA/USP laboratories. The AOP (O3/UV and O3/UV/H2O2) proposed showed up as a suitable alternative in terms of efficiency and cost-competitive when compared with other technologies to treatment of these phenolic compounds
 
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Publishing Date
2012-02-10
 
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