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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Fernanda Faganello Neme Oyan
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz (President)
Pedroso, Rafael Munhoz
Souza, Paulino Florêncio de
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação da absorção e translocação do 14C-carbendazim em morangueiro e feijoeiro
Keywords in Portuguese
Agrotóxico
Fungicida
Radioisótopos
Radiomarcado
Abstract in Portuguese
A monocultura na produção de alimentos vem mudando o cenário do sistema de cultivo e, consequentemente, alterando o equilíbrio do ecossistema. Esse desequilíbrio acarreta no aparecimento de agentes patógenos que necessitam de produtos fitossanitários para combatê-los. Nas culturas de morango e feijão, por exemplo, as doenças de maior incidência são aquelas causadas por fungos. Entretanto, apesar de ser incontestável a produtividade, a qualidade, a durabilidade e aparência dos alimentos que fazem uso dos agrotóxicos, a contaminação do produto final bem como os danos ao meio ambiente têm sido alvo de constante preocupação. Nas culturas de morango e feijão, o principal resíduo encontrado no Programa de Análise de Resíduos de Agrotóxicos em Alimentos (PARA) é o carbendazim. O tiofanato metílico, que é o fungicida aplicado nos morangueiros, é precursor do carbendazim, seu agente fungitóxico e por isso seus resíduos são expressos em carbendazim. Ambos os fungicidas citados são fungicidas sistêmicos, ou seja, são absorvidos e translocados pela planta. Determinar de maneira precisa como ocorre essa translocação de modo que sejam encontrados resíduos de agrotóxicos em flores e frutos é complexo. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a absorção e a translocação do fungicida carbendazim nas plantas de morango e feijão, a fim de verificar o comportamento deste agrotóxico e a presença, ou não, nos frutos, sementes e flores. Os estudos de absorção e translocação foram realizados através da aplicação de 14C-carbendazim. Nos períodos de 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 horas após a aplicação (HAA) e períodos esperados para floração (feijoeiro) e floração e frutificação (morangueiro), as folhas que receberam o tratamento foram lavadas a fim de quantificar o total absorvido. Após a secagem por 48 horas e autorradiografia, as plantas foram divididas em seis ou oito partes, no caso do morangueiro (folha tratada, pecíolo da folha tratada, demais folhas, pecíolo das folhas, raiz, coroa, flor e fruto quando existentes) e em oito ou nove partes, para o feijoeiro (folha tratada, pecíolo da folha tratada, folhas pares, folhas acima da folha tratada, folhas abaixo da folha tratada, pecíolo, caule, raiz e flores, quando existentes). Cada parte foi oxidada e a radioatividade foi quantificada por espectrometria de cintilação liquida. Quanto à absorção, não houve diferença significativa da taxa entre as culturas, contudo o morangueiro apresentou linearidade até 72HAA enquanto que o feijoeiro, apenas até 24HAA. Já a translocação total não apresentou valores significativos, sendo a taxa mais alta de 6,39% em morangueiro após 12 horas de aplicação. Conclui-se que o produto é absorvido pelas plantas, mas permanece praticamente somente nas folhas onde foi aplicado
Title in English
Evaluation of the absorption and translocation of 14C-carbendazim in strawberry and common bean
Keywords in English
Fungicide
Pesticide
Radioisotopes
Radiolabelled
Abstract in English
The monoculture in food production has changed the scenery of the cultivation system and, consequently, modifying the balance of the ecosystem. This imbalance entails the emergence of pathogens that require phytosanitary products to combat them. In the cultures of strawberry and beans crops, for example, the most prevalent diseases are those caused by fungi. However, despite the undeniable productivity, quality, durability and appearance of foods that make use of pesticides, the contamination of the final product as well as the damage to the environment have been the subject of constant concern. In the cultures of strawberry and beans crops, the main residue found in the Food Pesticide Residue Analysis Program (PARA) is the carbendazim. The methyl thiophanate, which is the fungicide applied in strawberry, is a precursor of carbendazim, its fungitoxic agent and therefore its residues are expressed in carbendazim. Both fungicides cited are systemic, that is, they are absorbed and translocated by the plant. Accurately determine how this translocation occurs so that pesticide residues are found in flowers and fruits is complex. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the absorption and translocation of the fungicide Carbendazim in strawberry and bean plants, in order to verify the behavior of this pesticide and the presence, or not, in the fruits, seeds and flowers. The absorption and translocation studies were carried out through the application of 14C-carbendazim. In periods of 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after application (HAA) and expected periods for flowering (common bean) and flowering and fruiting (strawberry), the leaves that received the treatment were washed in order to quantify the total absorbed. After drying for 48 hours and autoradiographed, the plants were divided into six or eight pieces, in the case of strawberry (treated leaf, petiole of the treated leaf, other leaves, petiole of leaves, root, crown, flower and, fruit when existing) and in eight or nine parts, for the common bean (treated leaf, petiole of the treated leaf, even leaves, leaves above the treated leaf, leaves below the treated leaf, petiole, stem, root and flowers, when existing). Each part was oxidized and the radioactivity was quantified by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Regarding the absorption, there was no significant difference in the rate between cultures, however the strawberry showed linearity up to 72HAA while the common bean, only up to 24HAA. The total translocation did not present significant values, with the highest rate of 6.39% in a strawberry after 12 hours of application. It is concluded that the product is absorbed by plants, but remains practically only in the leaves where it was applied
 
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Publishing Date
2019-10-15
 
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