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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.7.2008.tde-04032008-092629
Document
Author
Full name
Karine Azevêdo São Leão Ferreira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Kimura, Miako (President)
Cunha, Fernando de Queiroz
Hoff, Paulo Marcelo Gehm
Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos
Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen
Title in Portuguese
Dor e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pacientes com câncer: influência das citocinas pró-inflamatórias TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 e IL -1β
Keywords in Portuguese
Citocinas
Dor
Fator de necrose tumoral alfa
Interleucina-1 beta
Interleucina-6
Interleucina-8
Neoplasia
Qualidade de vida
Sintomas
Abstract in Portuguese
Objetivos: avaliar a associação entre dor oncológica crônica e as citocinas pró-inflamatórias interleucina-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-1β e TNF-α, e a interferência destas citocinas na relação entre dor, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS) e desempenho funcional (DF). Método: 220 pacientes ambulatoriais com câncer, que não haviam recebido nenhum tratamento antineoplásico nos últimos 30 dias, foram avaliados pelo Inventário Breve de Dor, Questionário de Dor McGill (MPQ), Inventário de Depressão de Beck, Escala de Desempenho Funcional de Karnofsky e a escala de QVRS, EORTC-QLQ-c30. Os níveis plasmáticos das citocinas foram dosados através do teste imunoenzimático ELISA e comparados entre pacientes com dor leve (G1), moderada a intensa (G2) e sem dor (G3) usando a ANOVA ou o teste de Kruskal-Wallis seguido por análise de múltiplas comparações. Os pacientes do G1 e G2 apresentavam apenas dor oncólogica e estavam em uso de analgésicos. Os do G3 tinham câncer, mas não apresentaram dor ou fizeram uso de analgésicos nos últimos 14 dias. 23 voluntários saudáveis (G4) foram incluídos como controle. A ANCOVA foi utilizada para avaliar o efeito das citocinas na relação dor, QVRS e DF. A análise de Árvore de Classificação e Regressão (CART) avaliou a relação entre citocinas e níveis de dor, ajustada por características clínicas, demográficas e sintomas. As correlações foram avaliadas pelos testes de Spearman e Pearson. Resultados: Os pacientes do G2 (n=49) apresentaram significativamente (p<0,05) maiores níveis de IL-6 e IL-8 que todos os demais grupos. Os níveis do TNF-α e da IL-1β foram maiores no G2 que no G1 (n=76) e G4, mas não diferiram significativamente do G3 (n=95). Entre pacientes com dor (n=125) foram observadas correlações significativas (p<0,05) ou com tendência a significância entre: IL-6 e a pior dor (r=0,23) e o escore total do MPQ (r=0,18); TNF-α e os descritores afetivos do MPQ (r=0,33); IL-8 e escore total do MPQ (r=0,16); dimensão emocional da QVRS e IL-8 (p=-0,26) e IL-6 (r=-0,17); escalas de sintomas de dor e IL-6 (r=0,21), e de fadiga com IL-8 (r=0,14). A ANOVA mostrou que os pacientes do G2 tiveram significativamente pior DF e QVRS que os do G1, G3 e G4, na maioria das escalas. Segundo a ANCOVA apenas a IL-8 moderou o efeito da dor sobre a escala de perda de apetite; e independentemente aumentou a fadiga. A análise de CART selecionou o estádio da doença, a IL-8, a insônia moderada a intensa, a fadiga leve a intensa e a idade <=48 anos como preditoras de dor. O maior percentual de casos com dor moderada a intensa foi observado entre os com estádio IV da doença e IL-8 > 5,20 pg/ml. Conclusões: o aumento das citocinas pró-inflamatórias IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β e TNF-α esteve relacionado ao aumento da dor. A IL-6 e IL-8 estavam associadas à ocorrência de dor moderada a intensa. A IL-8 moderou o efeito da dor sobre a perda de apetite em pacientes com dor, não interferindo no impacto da dor sobre o desempenho funcional, a QVRS geral e os domínios físico, emocional, social e cognitivo da QVRS. A IL-8 e IL-6 estavam independentemente correlacionadas com redução da QVRS emocional e a IL-8 com piora da fadiga em pacientes com dor oncológica. Os resultados sugerem que tratamento com antagonistas/inibidores das citocinas IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β e TNF-α pode contribuir para o alívio da dor em pacientes com câncer
Title in English
Pain and health-related quality of life in patients with cancer: influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 e IL-1β
Keywords in English
Cytokine
Interleucin-6
Interleukin-1 beta
Interleukin-8
Neoplasm
Pain
Quality of life
Symptom
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha
Abstract in English
Aims: to examine the association between chronic cancer pain and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the interference of these cytokines in the relationship between pain, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and performance status (PS). Methods: 220 cancer outpatients, who didn`t receive any antineoplastic treatment in the last 30 days, were evaluated by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), and a HRQOL measurement, the EORTC-QLQ-30. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and were compared among patients with mild (G1), moderate to severe (G2) and without pain (G3) using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Kruskal-Wallis followed by multiple comparison tests. Patients in G1 and G2 had only cancer pain and were using analgesics. G3 members had cancer but felt no pain and didn`t use analgesics in the last 14 days. Twenty-three healthy volunteers (G4) were included as controls. ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of cytokines on the pain, HRQOL and PS relationship. Associations between pain and cytokines, adjusted by cancer symptoms and clinical and demographic characteristics were also examined using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis. Correlations were assessed by Spearman's and Pearson's tests. Results: the IL-6 and IL-8 levels in G2 (n=49) patients was significantly (p<0.05) higher than of those in all other groups. The IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in G2 than in G1 (n=76) and G4, but not significantly different when compared with G3 (n=95). Among patients with pain (n=125), it was observed significant, or almost significant, correlations between: IL-6 with worst pain (r=0.23) and with the total score of MPQ (r=0.18); TNF-α with MPQ affective domain (r=0.33); IL-8 with total score of MPQ (r=0.16); emotional HRQOL domain and IL-8 (p=-0.26) and IL-6 (r=-0.17) and; between HRQOL pain scale and IL-6 (r=0.21), and fatigue scale and IL-8 (r=0.14). ANOVA showed that PS and HRQOL were significantly worse in G2 than in G1, G3 and G4 in most scales. According to ANCOVA, there was an interaction between pain and IL-8 that increased loss of appetite. IL-8 independently increased fatigue. CART analysis selected disease stage, IL-8, moderate to severe insomnia, mild to severe fatigue and age <=48 years as markers for pain. The highest percentage of patients with moderate to severe pain was observed among those with disease stage IV and plasma level of IL-8 > 5.20 pg/ml. Conclusions: increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α was related to increase in pain. IL-6 and IL-8 were related to moderate to severe pain occurrence. IL-8 was a moderator to the pain effect on loss of appetite in patients with pain but has not interfered neither on pain effect over performance status, nor on general HRQOL nor its physical, emotional, social and cognitive domains. IL-8 and IL-6 were found to be independently correlated with the decrease of the emotional domain scores of HRQOL and the IL-8 with increased fatigue on patients with cancer pain. Results suggest that treatment with IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α cytokine inhibitors/antagonists may provide pain relief in cancer patients
 
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Publishing Date
2008-03-06
 
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