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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.74.2006.tde-01092006-101659
Document
Author
Full name
Mayra Fernanda Rizzo Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Pirassununga, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Faria, Douglas Emygdio de (President)
Albuquerque, Ricardo de
Lima, Cesar Goncalves de
Murakami, Alice Eiko
Sobral, Paulo Jose do Amaral
Title in Portuguese
Desempenho, qualidade dos ovos e balanço de nitrogênio de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com diferentes níveis de proteína bruta, metionina e lisina
Keywords in Portuguese
albúmen
aminoácidos
armazenamento de ovos
gema
processamento
sólidos totais
Abstract in Portuguese
Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com um total de 416 poedeiras Hisex White, com os objetivos de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis dietários de proteína bruta (PB) e de lisina (LIS) sobre as características de desempenho, qualidade interna dos ovos e determinar o balanço e o coeficiente de metabolizabilidade aparente do nitrogênio (Experimento 1) e avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis dietários de LIS e metionina (MET) sobre o desempenho, qualidade interna dos ovos e propriedades funcionais dos componentes dos ovos (Experimento 2). No Experimento 1, foram utilizadas 160 poedeiras alojadas individualmente e submetidas ao delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC) em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, com os fatores: níveis de PB (12%, 14%, 16% e 18%) e de LIS (0,85% e 1,00%), totalizando oito tratamentos com cinco repetições de quatro aves cada. No Experimento 2, foram utilizadas 256 poedeiras alojadas individualmente e submetidas ao DIC em arranjo fatorial 4x4, com os fatores: níveis de LIS (0,482%, 0,682%, 0,882% e 1,082%) e de MET (0,225%, 0,318%, 0,411% e 0,505%), totalizando 16 tratamentos com quatro repetições de quatro aves cada. O desempenho foi avaliado por meio das características consumos de ração (CR), lisina (CLIS), metionina (CMET), proteína bruta (CPB) e de energia (CE), peso (PO), produção (PROD) e massa de ovos (MO), e conversão alimentar (CA). As características CPB, PO e MO tiveram respostas linear crescente. A qualidade interna dos ovos foi avaliada por meio das características peso e porcentagens de albúmen (ALB%) e gema (GEM%), e unidade Haugh (UH). A ALB% apresentou diferença significativa com resposta linear crescente. Em ambos experimentos, a qualidade dos ovos armazenados foi mensurada pelas características UH, PO e altura de albúmen, as quais apresentaram melhores resultados quando os ovos foram conservados em ambiente refrigerado. No entanto, independente do ambiente, a qualidade dos ovos piorou com o aumento do tempo de armazenamento. Respostas máximas das análises de proteína, sólidos totais, viscosidade e pH dos componentes albúmen e gema, foram obtidas quando as aves foram alimentadas com a concentração média de 15,33% de PB na dieta. No Experimento 1, após o término do período experimental foram realizadas coletas das excretas por um período de três dias para cálculo do balanço de nitrogênio, sendo observado aumento significativo da ingestão e excreção de nitrogênio conforme o incremento de PB na dieta. No experimento 2, as características CR, CMET, CE, PROD, PO e MO apresentaram resposta máxima quando as aves foram alimentadas com as concentrações dietárias médias de 0,870% de LIS e de 0,450% de MET. A classificação dos ovos por tipo e as características de qualidade interna e externa dos ovos não sofreram influência dos diferentes níveis dietários de MET e LIS. As propriedades funcionais dos componentes albúmen e gema foram avaliadas por meio da qualidade do cozimento com a confecção de bolos tipos Angel e Sponge cakes, a qual não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos. Conclui-se que níveis médios de 15,33% de PB, 0,450% de MET e 0,870% de LIS satisfazem as exigências das poedeiras para as características avaliadas.
Title in English
Performance, egg quality, and nitrogen balance of commercial laying hens fed different dietary levels of crude protein, methionine and lysine
Keywords in English
albumen
amino acids
egg storage
processing
total solids
yolk
Abstract in English
Four hundred sixteen Hisex White hens were used to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP) and lysine (LYS) on performance, internal egg quality and to determine the nitrogen balance and its apparent metabolizability coefficient (Experiment 1), and to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of LYS and methionine (MET) on performance, internal egg quality and functional properties of egg components (Experiment 2). One hundred sixty hens were randomly distributed in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme: CP levels (12%, 14%, 16% and 18%) and LYS levels (0,85% and 1,00%) totalizing eight treatments with five replicates of four birds each (Experiment 1). Two hundred fifty six hens were randomly distributed in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme: LYS levels (0,482%, 0,682%, 0,882% and 1,082%) and MET levels (0,225%, 0,318%, 0,411% and 0,505%) totalizing sixteen treatments with four replicates of four birds each (Experiment 2). Several characteristics were evaluated such as performance: intakes of feed, LYS, MET, CP and energy, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and feed conversion; internal egg quality: weight and percentages of egg albumen and egg yolk, Haugh unit; quality of storaged eggs: Haugh unit, egg weight and albumen height; analyses of concentrations of protein, total solids, viscosity and pH of the egg components. The characteristics intake of CP, egg weight, egg mass, and albumen percent showed positive and linear response. In both experiments, the quality of storaged eggs was better when eggs were storaged in refrigerated environment than natural environment. However, irrespective of the environment, the internal egg quality was impaired as the time of storage was increased. Maximum responses for analyses of protein, total solids, viscosity, and pH of albumen and yolk were obtained when hens were fed diets containing 15,33% of CP. In the Experiment 1, after the experimental period, another assay was carried out to determine the nitrogen balance by using total excreta procedure during a three-day period. It was observed increase of intake and excretion of nitrogen as the content of CP in the diet was increased. In the Experiment 2, feed intake, MET intake, energy intake, egg production, egg weight, and egg mass showed maximum responses when hens were fed diets containing 0,870% of LYS and 0,450% of MET. Egg grading, internal and external egg quality characteristics were not influenced by the different dietary levels of MET and LYS. The functional properties of egg components (cooking quality by making Angel and Sponge cakes) were not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that hens fed diets containing 15,33% of CP, 0,450% of MET, and 0,870% of LYS show optimum performance, internal and external egg quality.
 
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Publishing Date
2006-09-01
 
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