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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.74.2012.tde-04072012-103605
Document
Author
Full name
Natali Knorr Valadão
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Pirassununga, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de (President)
Cruz, Adriano Gomes da
Kushida, Marta Mitsui
Title in Portuguese
Rastreabilidade de micro-organismos patogênicos ao longo da produção de leite pasteurizado: ferramenta potencial para a segurança alimentar
Keywords in Portuguese
Escherichia coli
Listeria monocytogenes
Staphylococcus aureus
Laticínio
Micro-organismos indicadores
Abstract in Portuguese
O objetivo do presente estudo foi monitorar a incidência de Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, coliformes totais, bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e psicrotróficas ao longo da produção de leite pasteurizado, desde a ordenha até a obtenção do produto final para estabelecer etapas e locais críticos da produção, bem como avaliar se a presença de Listeria sp. constitui um bioindicador de L. monocytogenes, e E. coli um bioindicador de outros micro-organismos patogênicos. As coletas foram feitas em 5 laticínios (A, B, C, D e E) do Estado de São Paulo, em duplicata, com intervalo de coleta variando de 3 semanas a 7 meses, de acordo com disponibilidade dos laticínios. Coletou-se um total de 236 amostras foram coletadas, sendo 36 de leite (cru e pasteurizado), 162 eram provenientes de superfícies que não tinham contato com o leite e 38 superfícies que entravam em contato com leite. Das 36 amostras de leite analisadas, 13,9% estavam contaminadas com Listeria sp. e nenhuma com L. monocytogenes; 61,1% continham E. coli e 5,6% apresentavam S. aureus. Somente o leite do laticínio C apresentou em uma das coletas micro-organismo patogênico (E. coli) no leite pasteurizado, indicando falhas no processamento ou no manejo no momento da ordenha. Das 38 amostras de superfícies com contato com o leite (38), 2,6% foram positivas para Listeria sp., 50,0% para E. coli e 5,3% para S. aureus. Das amostras de superfícies sem contato com o leite (162), 13,3% estavam contaminas com Listeria sp., 6,2% com L. monocytogenes e 25,9% com E. coli. De acordo com o limite estabelecido de aeróbios mesófilos no leite cru pela IN 62, constatou-se que 50,0% do leite cru dos laticínios A, D e E, 100% do leite cru do laticínio B e 33,3% do leite cru do laticínio C estão fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. Foi comprovado que a Listeria sp. não pode ser considerada como bioindicador de L. monocytogenes pelo teste Qui-Quadrado (p<0,05). Ao comparar as médias das amostras positivas para os microorganismos E. coli, S. aureus, Listeria sp. e L. monocytogenes dos laticínios processadores de leite tipo A com os de leite pasteurizado, somente o S. aureus no leite apresentou diferença significativa pelo teste "T" (p<0,05). Além dos pontos críticos de controle (PCC) checados através da Árvore Decisória (pasteurização, superfícies internas de embalagens), outros pontos merecem destaque pela elevada quantidade de patógenos (tanques de armazenamento de leite cru e pisos e paredes de câmaras frias). Os resultados obtidos ressaltam a importância da adoção de ferramentas de gestão da qualidade, como Boas Práticas de Fabricação e APPCC, para que a segurança alimentar seja garantida ao longo da cadeia de produção do leite pasteurizado nos laticínios estudados.
Title in English
Traceability of pathogenic microorganisms along the pasteurized milk production: a potential tool for food safety
Keywords in English
Escherichia coli
Listeria monocytogenes
Staphylococcus aureus
Dairy plant
Indicator microorganisms
Abstract in English
The aim of this study was to monitor the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, mesophilic aerobic and psychrotrophic bacteria along the pasteurized milk production, from milking to the final product, to establish steps and critical points of production, as well as to evaluate the presence of Listeria sp. as a bioindicator of L. monocytogenes and E. coli a bioindicator of other pathogenic microorganisms. Duplicate samples were collected in 5 dairy plants (A, B, C, D, E) from the state of São Paulo, within intervals ranging from 3 weeks to 7 months, according to the dairy plants availability. A total of 236 samples were collected, being 36 of milk (raw and pasteurized), 162 from surfaces with no contact with the milk, and 38 from surfaces with contact with milk. Out of 36 milk samples analyzed, 13.9% were contaminated with Listeria sp. and none had L. monocytogenes; 61.1% were contaminated with E. coli and 5.6% with S. aureus. Only dairy plant C showed pathogenic microorganism (E. coli) in the pasteurized milk in one of the collections, indicating failures in the pasteurization or excessive bacterial load in the raw milk. Out of the 38 samples of surfaces that had contact with milk, 2.6% were positive for Listeria sp., 50.0% for E. coli and 5.3% for S. aureus. As for the samples from surfaces with no contact with milk (162), 13.3% were contaminated with Listeria sp., 6.2% with L. monocytogenes and 25.9% with E. coli. According to the Brazilian regulations for aerobic mesophiles in raw milk by Normative Instruction 62, 50.0% of samples from dairy plants A, D and E, 100% of samples from dairy plant B and 33.3% of samples from dairy plant C were above the tolerance limit adopted. The analysis of Listeria sp. could not be considered as a bioindicator of L. monocytogenes by chi-square test (p<0.05). When comparing the mean frequencies of positive samples for E. coli, S. aureus, Listeria sp. and L. monocytogenes in the processing dairy plants of type A milk (plants A and B) and the pasteurized one (plants C, D and E), only S. aureus in milk showed significant difference by "T" test (p<0.05). In addition to the critical control points (CCP) checked by a decision tree (pasteurization, internal surfaces of packaging), other points should be highlighted by the high number of pathogens found (bulk raw milk tanks, floors and walls of cold storage rooms). Results of this trial indicate the importance of adoption of quality management tools such as Good Manufacture Practices and HACCP, to ensure food safety along the pasteurized milk production chain in the dairy plants evaluated.
 
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ME5370927.pdf (1.57 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2012-07-10
 
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