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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.75.2009.tde-25022010-140754
Document
Author
Full name
Luana Marques Gomes
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Azevedo, Eduardo Bessa (President)
Nogueira, Raquel Fernandes Pupo
Rezende, Maria Olimpia de Oliveira
Title in Portuguese
Estudo da otimização do processo Fenton para o descoramento de corantes azo
Keywords in Portuguese
Azorubina
Corante
Fenton
Fitotoxicidade
Planejamento experimental
Remoção de cor
Tartrazina
Abstract in Portuguese
No caso de indústrias que utilizam processos de tingimento, a remoção da cor dos seus efluentes líquidos é uma grande preocupação. Os corantes azóicos representam 60% dos corantes utilizados na atualidade em todo o mundo; no entanto, são conhecidos pelo seu efeito carcinogênico e mutagênico, tornando-se urgente o seu tratamento. Assim sendo, tem surgido diversas alternativas aos processos convencionais de tratamento, relativamente aos processos de tratamento de efluentes convencionais, notadamente o processo Fenton, que se tem mostrado bastante promissor. Neste trabalho, investigou-se a otimização do processo Fenton, relativamente ao descoramento de dois corantes azóicos: a azorubina (C20H12N2Na2O7S2, C.I. 14720) e a tartrazina (C16H7N4Na3O9S2, C.I. 19140). Para tal, realizou-se um planejamento composto central, ajustou-se um modelo polinomial (empírico) aos dados experimentais obtidos e obtiveram-se as condições ótimas: razão [Fe2+]/[H2O2] = 0,64 e 0,32, pH = 1,5 e 2,8 e temperatura = 39°C. As variáveis-resposta foram: o grau de descoramento (medido pela área sob o espectro na região do visível) e as concentrações residuais de H2O2 (método do vanadato) e Fe (método da o-fenantrolina). Determinou-se o grau de mineralização por análises de carbono orgânico dissolvido e também a fitotoxicidade a sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa). Realizaram-se análises por CLAE-DAD de forma a se observar a geração dos produtos de oxidação. Obtiveram-se descoramentos de aproximadamente 100% para os corantes isoladamente e em mistura. As concentrações residuais de H2O2 e Fe foram desprezíveis. As mineralizações alcançadas foram da ordem de 50%. Observou-se um aumento de fitotoxicidade após o processo Fenton. Verificou-se, também, o desempenho do processo na presença de dois aditivos comumente usados na indústria têxtil, um igualizante e um anti-espumante. A presença dos aditivos reduziu significativamente os graus de descoramento (de 100% para 90%) e de mineralização (de 50% para 10%). Em relação à fitotoxicidade, verificou-se que os aditivos tornam as soluções muito tóxicas, não tendo sido observado um aumento estatisticamente significativo após o processo Fenton. As análises cromatográficas mostraram, inequivocamente, a presença de pelo menos um produto de oxidação nas amostras tratadas. Concluiu-se que o processo Fenton apresentou um ótimo desempenho para o descoramento dos corantes estudados. Entretanto, a presença dos aditivos tenderia a prejudicar o tratamento de efluentes que contivessem tais corantes.
Title in English
Optimization study of the Fenton process for azo dyes decolorization
Keywords in English
Azorubine
Color removal
Dye
Experimental desing (DOE)
Fenton
Phytotoxicity
Tartrazine
Abstract in English
In the case of industries that use dyeing processes, the removal of color from their wastewaters is a major concern. The azo dyes account for 60% of the dyes currently in use worldwide. However, they are known for their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, making their treatment an urgent matter. Therefore, several alternatives to the conventional treatment processes have been devised, particularly the Fenton process, which has been proved to be very promising. In this work, the Fenton process optimization regarding the bleaching of two azo dyes was investigated: azorubine (C20H12N2Na2O7S2, C.I. 14720) and tartrazine (C16H7N4Na3O9S2, C.I. 19140). For that purpose, a central composite design was used, a polynomial (empiric) model was fitted to the experimental data, and the optimum conditions were determined: rate [Fe2+]/[H2O2] = 0.64 and 0.32, pH = 1.5 and 2.8, and temperature = 39°C. The response variables were: color removal (measured by the area under the spectrum obtained in the visible region) and the residual concentrations of H2O2 (vanadate method) and Fe (o-fenantroline method). It was determined the mineralization degree by dissolved organic carbon analyses and also the phytotoxicity to lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa). HPLC-DAD analyses were performed in order to observe the generation of oxidation products. Color removals of approximately 100% were achieved for the each dyes and for a mixture of them. The residual concentrations of H2O2 and Fe were close to zero. Mineralizations around 50% were obtained and a phytotoxicity enhancement after Fenton's process. It has also been observed that the performance of that process in the presence of two textile auxiliary products (TAPs) commonly used, a leveling agent and an anti-foaming one. The auxiliaries reduced significantly color removal (from 100% to 90%) and the degree of mineralization (from 50% to 10%). Regarding the phytotoxicity, it was observed that the TAPs used rendered the solutions quite toxic, with no further statistically significant enhancement after the Fenton's process. The chromatographic analyses showed, undoubtedly, the presence of at least one oxidation product in the treated samples. It was concluded that the Fenton's process presented an excellent performance for removing the color of the studied dyes. However, the presence of the auxiliaries would tend to impair the treatment of wastewaters containing those dyes.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-08-17
 
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