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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.75.2016.tde-26072016-152852
Document
Author
Full name
Tiago Andrade Chimenez
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Gehlen, Marcelo Henrique (President)
Guimarães, Francisco Eduardo Gontijo
Albuquerque, Hamilton Brandão Varela de
Auweraer, Mark Germaine van Der
Curvelo, Antonio Aprigio da Silva
Hofkens, Johan Maria Victor
Roeffaers, Maarten Blanka Jozef
Title in Portuguese
Estudos de sistemas poliméricos naturais e sintéticos utilizando técnicas avançadas de microscopia
Keywords in Portuguese
bagaço de cana-de-açúcar
microscopia confocal de fluorescência
microscopia de campo largo
nanocelulose cristalina
poliestireno
polímeros
Abstract in Portuguese
O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar é um abundante coproduto obtido a partir da produção convencional de etanol. No entanto, o bagaço vem se mostrando como uma importante fonte para a produção de etanol de segunda geração. No primeiro capítulo da tese é apresentado um estudo referente à distribuição espacial dos compostos na matriz de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. A investigação foi realizada utilizando microscopia de fluorescência confocal e espectroscopia por excitação com um e dois fótons. Imagens de autofluorescência em combinação com as medidas de fluorescência e tempos de vida forneceram uma gama de informações necessárias para a caracterização de amostras de bagaço. Além disso, a técnica permite o acompanhamento de processos relacionados com a remoção de lignina. A nanocelulose cristalina (NCC) é um material promissor devido as suas propriedades intrínsecas, tais como seu formato alongado, medindo de 1 a 100 nm de diâmetro e seu comprimento variando de algumas dezenas a centenas de nanômetros. No capítulo 2, a nanocelulose cristalina foi obtida através da hidrólise da celulose cristalina (de Avicel®) com ácido sulfúrico. Em seguida, o material foi caracterizado por técnicas de microscopia SEM e TEM, confirmando a morfologia em forma de haste e a estrutura de tamanho nanométrico. A microscopia de campo largo convencional foi utilizada como ferramenta na caracterização da NCC dispersa em soluções poliméricas de PVA e PVP. A última parte do capítulo 2 descreve a caracterização de estruturas de NCC usando a microscopia de super-resolução de fluorescência STED (depleção de emissão estimulada). As imagens mostraram uma resolução de até 50 nm, permitindo a comparação com resultados de TEM e AFM. No capítulo 3, a nanocelulose cristalina foi covalentemente marcada com o corante ATTO-532, através da chamada reação "click". As propriedades relacionadas com o coeficiente de difusão da NCC foram determinadas por espectroscopia de correlação de fluorescência (FCS). Em uma etapa posterior, a NCC foi colocada em diferentes soluções do polímero PEG, contendo quantidades diferentes. As propriedades dinâmicas foram analisadas por métodos de FCS e WFM. O uso de técnicas de espectroscopia e microscopia revelou detalhes relacionados à heterogeneidade das dispersões de NCC, as quais estão relacionadas com as propriedades hidrofílicas e hidrofóbicas das soluções poliméricas.
Title in English
Study of natural and synthetic polymer systems by advanced microscopy techniques
Keywords in English
fluorescence confocal microscopy
nanocrystalline celulose
polymers
polystyrene
sugarcane bagasse
wide field microscopy
Abstract in English
The sugarcane bagasse is an abundant co-product obtained from the conventional production of ethanol. However, sugarcane bagasse has been proving to be an important source to the production of second-generation ethanol. In the first chapter, the spatial distribution of compounds in the sugarcane bagasse matrix was investigated by confocal fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy with one and two-photon excitation. Autofluorescence images in combination to spectral emission and lifetime measurements provided a tool for the characterization of natural bagasse samples. Moreover, the technique allows the following of processes related to the lignin removal. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) is a promisor material because of its properties, such as rod-shape with 1-100 nm in diameter, and tens to hundreds of nanometres in length. In the Chapter 2, NCC was obtained via sulphuric acid hydrolysis from Avicel®. Afterwards, the material was characterized by classic electronic microscopy SEM and TEM, confirming the rod-shaped morphology and the nano-sized structure. Conventional wide field microscopy was used as fluorescence microscopy tool in the characterization of NCC, when dispersed in polymeric solutions of PVA and PVP. The last part of the chapter 2 describes the characterization of NCC structures by using the super-resolution fluorescence microscopy STED (Stimulated Emission Depletion). The STED images showed a resolution down to 50 nm, allowing the comparison with TEM and AFM microscopy results. In the Chapter 3, the NCC was covalently labelled, by a click-chemistry reaction, with the ATTO-532 dye. Properties related to diffusion coefficient of NCC were determined by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) method. Afterwards, NCC was placed into a solution of PEG, containing different amounts polymer. The dynamic properties were evaluated by FCS and WFM methods. The use of spectroscopy and microscopy imaging techniques revealed heterogeneity details of NCC dispersions, which are related to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of the polymer solution. A better understanding of polymer systems is achieved by investigation of diffusion properties, that allows the comprehension of rheological parameters, and, consequently, in polymer processing and assembly of plastics, films, and fibres. In the Chapter 4 is presented a study where fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and wide-field fluorescence microscopy (WFM) were used to follow changes in the diffusion coefficients of growing polymer chains, during the controlled radical polymerization process. Linear and star-shaped polystyrene were grown via nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) from alkoxyamine-based initiators containing a highly fluorescent perylene diimide moiety. This study demonstrates that direct investigation of heterogeneity emerging during a controlled radical polymerization process by means of fluorescence of single-molecule chain initiator allows unravelling information related to the diffusion processes of the growing polymer chain.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-07-28
 
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