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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.75.2012.tde-25072012-090752
Document
Author
Full name
Pedro Henrique Oliveira Amorim
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Cavalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes (President)
D'Assuncao, Lazaro Moscardini
Nunes, Ronaldo Spezia
Title in Portuguese
Caracterização térmica e estudo de polimorfismo de fármacos antihipertensivos da classe dos β-bloqueadores: nadolol e atenolol
Keywords in Portuguese
β-bloqueadores
análise térmica
polimorfismo
Abstract in Portuguese
Dois anti-hipertensivos da classe dos β-bloqueadores, o nadolol ((2R, 3S)-5-[2-hidroxi-3-(terc-butilamino)-propoxi]tetralin-2,3-diol) e o atenolol ((R,S)-2-[4-[2-hidroxi-3-(1-isopropilamino)-propoxi]fenil]acetamida) foram submetidos à análise térmica para caracterização de seus mecanismos de decomposição e o primeiro submetido a estudos sobre polimorfismo. Após fusão em 129,6 °C (ΔHfus = 157,3 J g-1; ΔSfus = 1,18 J °C-1 g-1), a decomposição do nadolol ocorreu em uma única etapa entre 183,7-404,7 °C, com liberação de terc-butil amina e vários fragmento da molécula. Estudos cinéticos baseados em método isoconversional mostraram Ea = 101,4 ± 0,1 kJ mol-1 fator pré-exponencial de Arrhenius log A = 8,53 ± 0,02 min-1. No caso do atenolol, a fusão apresentou-se em 153,1 °C (ΔHfus = 142,5 J g-1; ΔSfus = 0,92 J °C-1 g-1), seguida pela decomposição em uma única etapa entre 191,8-900,0 °C, na qual ocorre a liberação de amônia, formando um dímero e as isopropilaminas das extremidades. Seguem-se amônia, isopropanol, gás carbônico e água. Estudos cinéticos baseados em método isoconversional mostraram Ea = 102 ± 3 kJ mol-1 fator pré-exponencial log A = 9,2 ± 0,3 min-1. Estudos de polimorfismo do nadolol mostraram que o composto pode ser separado em pelo menos duas de suas formas enantiomórficas por cristalização e que aglomerados cristalinos podem ser obtidos, variando-se o sistema solvente e a temperatura de cristalização.
Title in English
Thermal characterization and polymorphism studies of β-blockers antihipertensive drugs: nadolol e atenolol
Keywords in English
β-blockers
polymorphism
thermal analysis
Abstract in English
Two β-blocker antihypertensives nadolol ((2R, 3S)-5-[2-hidroxy-3-(terc-butilamine)-propoxy]tetralin-2,3-diol) and atenolol ((R,S)-2-[4-[2-hidroxy-3-(1-isopropylamine)-propoxy]phenyl]acetamide) were submitted to thermal analysis in order to characterize their decomposition mechanisms and the first was also subject of a polymorphism investigations. After melting at 129,6 °C (ΔHfus = 157,3 J g-1; ΔSfus = 1,18 J °C-1 g-1), the decomposition of nadolol took place in a single step beetwen 183,7-404,7 °C, with release of terc-butyl amine and several fragments of the molecule. Kinetic studies based on the isoconvertional method reveled an activation energy Ea = 101,4 ± 0,1 kJ mol-1 and a pre-exponential factor log A = 8,53 ± 0,02 min-1. In atenolol case the melting was detected at 153,1 °C (ΔHfus = 142,5 J g-1; ΔSfus = 0,92 J °C-1 g-1), followed by decomposition in a single step between 191,8-900,0 °C, in which a dimmer is formed after release of ammonia and the isopropylamines in the edges of the molecules. Then ammonia, isporpyl alcohol, carbonic gas and water were released. Kinetic studies by the isoconvertional method showed activation energy Ea = 102 ± 3 kJ mol-1 and exponential pre-factor log A = 9,2 ± 0,3 min-1 for the solid state thermal decomposition reaction. Polymorphism studies for nadolol revealed that at least two enantiomeric forms of the compound can be isolated in, by varying the solvent and the temperature of crystallization.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-10-23
 
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