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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.76.2013.tde-18092013-103829
Document
Author
Full name
Juan Carlos Tenorio Clavijo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Ellena, Javier Alcides (President)
Martins, Felipe Terra
Simone, Carlos Alberto de
Title in Portuguese
Planejamento, obtenção e caracterização de novas formas sólidas do fármaco antirretroviral lamivudina (3TC)
Keywords in Portuguese
Análise supramolecular
Análise vibracional e térmica
Estrutura cristalina
Lamivudina
Relação estrutura-propriedade
Abstract in Portuguese
Este trabalho enquadra-se dentro dos objetivos da engenharia de cristais moleculares para a obtenção de novas formas sólidas que possam apresentar propriedades farmacêuticas aprimoradas, especificamente de um dos fármacos mais utilizados e comercializados na terapia antirretroviral, contra o HIV: lamivudina, β-L-2',3'-didesoxi-3'-tiocitidina (3TC). As formas cristalinas apresentadas correspondem aos sais dos ácidos inorgânicos: bromidrato (3TCH+-Br-), difluoridrato de hidrogênio (3TCH+-F-HF) e nitrato de lamivudina (3TCH+-NO3-). Estes novos sais cristalizaram no grupo espacial não-centrossimétrico P21, com um par iônico por unidade assimétrica. Os sais halogenados (3TCH+-Br- e 3TCH+-F-HF) apresentaram arranjos supramoleculares isoestruturais inclusive com o sal anidro do cloridrato de lamivudina (3TCH+-Cl-), reportado em trabalhos anteriores no nosso grupo de pesquisa, e cuja solubilidade no equilíbrio apresentou um aumento em relação à forma farmacêutica da 3TC. A característica principal dos arranjos cristalinos destes sais está relacionada com o ordenamento supramolecular das unidades catiônicas 3TCH+, a qual é constante, observando-se a formação de vacâncias entre elas ao longo do eixo cristalino a, decorrente da simetria helicoidal característica do grupo espacial. Desta forma, os ânions se acomodam nos interstícios destas vacâncias estabilizando o arranjo cristalino. Entretanto, o sal 3TCH+NO3- apresentou um comportamento conformacional e supramolecular diferente do observado nos sais halogenados. Neste caso observaram-se a formação de fitas helicoidais ao longo do eixo b, as quais vão se acoplando por simetria translacional na direção horizontal no plano [10-1] por meio de ligações de hidrogênio clássicas do tipo N–H•••O entre os fragmentos citosinicos e O–H•••O dos grupos hidroxilas e os ânions nitrato correspondentemente. Portanto, há a formação de planos moleculares em ziguezague, que posteriormente vão se arquitetando paralelamente na direção [1 0 -1] através de interações de curto alcance. Tanto as características conformacionais e supramoleculares, quanto a pureza exibida pelos sais foram também corroboradas com a ajuda de outras técnicas de análise no estado sólido, como a difração de raios X por pó (DRXP), a análise vibracional no infravermelho (IV) e Raman, e a análise térmica: calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC), termogravimetria (TG) e microscopia termo-óptica (Hot-stage). Cálculos de single-point em nível da teoria do funcional da densidade (DFT) foram realizados com o intuito de auxiliar na compreensão de algumas interações intermoleculares. Comparações das propriedades estruturais dos sais sintetizados com algumas formas já reportadas da 3TC (por exemplo, a 3TCH-Cl) permitiram inferir possíveis propriedades farmacêuticas.
Title in English
Design, production and characterization of new solid forms of antiretroviral drug lamivudine (3TC)
Keywords in English
Crystal structure
Lamivudine
Structure-property relationship
Supramolecular analysis
Vibrational and termal analyses
Abstract in English
This work falls within the main goals of crystal engineering, the improvement of pharmaceutical properties, through the design of new solid forms of the lamivudine, β-L-2 ´, 3´-dideoxy-3´-tiocytidine (3TC), one of the most used and marketed drug in the antiretroviral therapy against HIV. The crystalline forms herein presented correspond to inorganic acid salts: Lamivudine hydrobromide (3TCH+-Br-), hydrogen difluoride (3TCH+-F-HF) and nitrate (3TCH+-NO3-). These new salts crystallized in non-centrossymetric space group P21, with an ionic pair per asymmetric unit. The halogenated salts (3TCH+-Br- and 3TCH+-F-HF) exhibited isostructural supramolecular assemblies, similar to the anhydrous salt of lamivudine hydrochloride (3TCH+-Cl-) reported in a previous studies performed in our research group, and whose equilibrium solubility showed an increase when compared with 3TC pharmaceutical form. The main feature of the salt crystalline assemblies is related to the supramolecular ordering of the 3TCH+ cationic units, which is constant, by observing the formation of vacancies between them along the a crystalline axis due to the helical symmetry, characteristic of their space group. In this way, the anions accommodate themselves into the interstices of these vacancies, stabilizing the crystalline assemblies. Meanwhile, the 3TCH+NO3- salt showed a conformational and supramolecular behavior different from that observed in the halogenated salts. In this case it was observed the formation of helical strands along the b axis, which will be engaging by translational symmetry in the horizontal direction in the [10-1] plane through N–H•••O e O–H•••O classical hydrogen bonds, between the cytosine and hydroxyl fragments and the nitrate anions. Therefore, they form molecular zigzag plans which will subsequently architect parallel with the [10-1] direction by short-contact interactions. Both conformational and supramolecular characteristics as well as the purity exhibited by these salts were also supported with the help of other solid state techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRDP), vibrational analysis as Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and hot-stage microscopy. Single point theoretical calculations at the level of density functional theory (DFT) were performed in order to assist in the understanding of some intermolecular interactions. Comparison of the structural properties of the synthesized salts with some forms already reported (e.g. 3TCH+-Cl-) allowed to infer some possible pharmaceutical properties.
 
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Publishing Date
2013-09-20
 
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