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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2017.tde-13042017-092309
Document
Author
Full name
Natália Nahas Carneiro Maia Calfat
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Silva, Glauco Peres da (President)
Cunha, Luciana Gross Siqueira
Reis, Bruno Pinheiro Wanderley
Title in Portuguese
O modelo consociativo para sociedades plurirreligiosas: reflexões e aprendizados sobre a experiência confessional libanesa
Keywords in Portuguese
Consociativismo
Crises institucionais
Estudo de caso
Hezbollah
Sistema confessional libanês
Abstract in Portuguese
O modelo consociativo de democracia parlamentar reflete a necessidade de prevenção de conflitos comunais em sociedades segmentadas e visa proporcionar-lhes estabilidade democrática. O Líbano e suas 18 seitas oficiais foi considerado por Arend Lijphart como um caso de sociedade multiétnica profundamente dividida por clivagens sobrepostas, país no qual o consociativismo e a capacidade de acomodação das elites seriam viáveis. No entanto, o país tem enfrentado rupturas institucionais constantes e intensificação de tensões sectárias mesmo após o fim da guerra civil (1975-1990). As crises de governança em 2005 e 2008, o vácuo presidencial de Maio de 2014 à Outubro de 2016 e as persistentes crises de energia, água e lixo são exemplos de tais eventos. Além disso, o Líbano tem um Estado nação frágil e inoperante, abrindo uma lacuna em termos de defesa militar, promoção de serviços sociais e provisão de bens públicos. Ao mesmo tempo, contudo, as crises sugerem não demonstrações de falta de governança, mas ajustes de representação para inclusão de elites não tradicionais no poder (como é o caso da xiita e sua obtenção do poder de veto através da figura do Hezbollah em 2008). E, sobretudo, o sistema confessional teve continuidade histórica significativa ao longo dos séculos XX e XXI. Em razão desta falta de consenso na literatura, será objetivo do presente trabalho indicar e refletir sobre os limites, decorrências e contribuições do consociativismo à realidade libanesa em sua modalidade confessional. Através do estudo de caso proposto apontaremos de que modo, de forma problemática, falta na literatura consociativa o entendimento de que a institucionalização rigorosa das diferenças religiosas não promove mais democracia e representatividade, mas, ao contrário, enfraquece o Estado nacional e engendra práticas de clientelismo sectário. Os resultados obtidos reforçam a necessidade de revisão teórica do modelo de Lijphart de modo a afastar do mesmo arranjos consociativos altamente institucionalizados tais como os do tipo confessional. Na medida em que tal prescrição está ausente na teoria consociativa clássica, identificamos uma anomalia no modelo original de Lijphart que precisa ser revista e sanada.
Title in English
The consociational model for multi-religious societies: considerations and yields from the Lebanese confessional experience
Keywords in English
Case study
Consociationalism
Hezbollah
Institutional crisis
Lebanese confessional system
Abstract in English
The consociational model of parliamentary democracy reflects the need to prevent communal conflicts in segmented societies and aims to provide them with democratic stability. Lebanon and its 18 official sects was considered by Arend Lijphart as a case of multi-ethnic and deeply divided society, a country where consociationalism and elites' compromising would be feasible. However, the country has been facing constant institutional disruption and intensification of sectarian tensions even after the end of the civil war (1975-1990). Governance crisis in 2005 and 2008, presidential vacuum from May 2014 to October 2016 and the persistent energy, water and waste disposal crisis are examples of such events. In addition, Lebanon has a fragile and ineffective nation state, deficient in terms of its military defense, promotion of social services and provision of public goods. At the same time, however, these crisis suggest not lack of governance demonstrations, but representation and power adjustments to include non-traditional elites (as it is the case for the Shia sect and its veto power obtainment through Hezbollah in 2008). Utmost, the confessional system has had significant historical continuity throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Due to the literatures lack of consensus revolving this issue, the present work intends to present and reflect over consociativisms limits, consequences and contributions to the Lebanese reality in its confessional form. Through the here proposed case study, it will be problematically pointed out that the consociational literature misses the point by not understanding that the rigorous institutionalization of religious differences does not promote more democracy and representation; but, rather, weakens the national state and engenders clientelist sectarianism. The results obtained reinforce the need for Lijpharts model theoretical revision in order to except from it highly institutionalized consociational arrangements (such as the confessional one). To the extent that such prescription is absent in classic consociational theory, we have identified an anomaly in Lijpharts original model that needs to be reviewed and amended.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-04-13
 
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