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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2018.tde-06032018-121457
Document
Author
Full name
Priscila Pereira Faria Vieira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Guimaraes, Nadya Araujo (President)
Bichir, Renata Mirandola
Feltran, Gabriel de Santis
Hirata, Helena Sumiko
Jaccoud, Luciana de Barros
Title in Portuguese
Trabalho e pobreza no Brasil entre narrativas governamentais e experiências individuais
Keywords in Portuguese
Brasil
Pobreza
Políticas sociais
Trabalho
Abstract in Portuguese
Como é representado o trabalho dos pobres? Esta tese objetiva compreender as transformações, deslocamentos, tensões e disputas em torno das articulações das categorias trabalho e pobreza, analisando-as sob duas óticas diferentes, mas conectadas, a governamental e a individual. Por isso, a investigação empírica se realizou em dois âmbitos: o do Estado brasileiro que, com suas políticas, classifica alguns de seus cidadãos como pobres, e o dos indivíduos por ele assim classificados. Analisamos as ações governamentais e as formulações institucionais que pautaram as políticas sociais brasileiras nos anos 2000 e 2010, revelando as estratégias e narrativas que sustentaram as ações governamentais voltadas para o problema da inserção dos indivíduos pobres no mundo produtivo. Esse processo foi reconstituído a partir da consulta a materiais institucionais e de entrevistas com agentes governamentais nos níveis federal e municipal. Documentamos que, conforme a conjuntura brasileira se transformava e as políticas sociais se desenvolviam, os discursos governamentais produziam novas formas simbólicas de enlaçar pobreza e trabalho. A temática foi igualmente investigada pela ótica das experiências cotidianas de um grupo de indivíduos e famílias beneficiárias dos programas de superação da pobreza. Com base em uma pesquisa etnográfica em um bairro periférico do município de São Paulo, analisamos as trajetórias de famílias institucionalmente categorizadas como pobres, evidenciando tanto a multiplicidade de arranjos de sobrevivência e garantia de renda e bem-estar, quanto a diversidade de formas nativas de descrevê-las e representá-las. Composição e dinâmica familiar, origem, gênero e geração foram dimensões cruciais de análise. Esta revelou a intensidade com que diferentes significados de trabalho eram construídos, manipulados e disputados no cotidiano dos indivíduos em contextos de pobreza. Observamos que se transformavam as narrativas, as estratégias e as dinâmicas de relações dos pobres com os circuitos estruturantes da sua sobrevivência: os mercados, o Estado, a família e as redes de amizade e vizinhança. Essa trama complexa de atividades que os indivíduos desempenham para ganhar a vida - formais e informais, legais e ilegais, morais e imorais, visíveis e invisíveis -, desafiam tanto os discursos e práticas governamentais, quanto a compreensão da Sociologia do Trabalho.
Title in English
Work and poverty in Brazil: government narratives and individual experiences
Keywords in English
Brazil
Poverty
Social policies
Work
Abstract in English
This thesis intends to grasp transformations, displacements, tensions and disputes concerning the articulations of the categories labor and poverty, by analyzing them from two different but connected points of view, the governmental and the individual perspectives. Consequently, the empirical investigation is conducted considering two frameworks: the Brazilian state perspective, which, through its policies, classifies some of its citizens as poor, and the individuals categorized as poor outlook. We analyzed the governmental actions and institutional formulations that drove Brazil's social policies in the 2000s and 2010s, revealing the strategies and narratives that have sustained government actions oriented to the problem of placing poor individuals in the productive world. This process was reconstructed through the extensive examination of institutional materials and interviews with governmental agents at federal and municipal levels. We documented that, as the scenario in Brazil transformed and social policies developed, governmental discourses produced new symbolic ways to entangle poverty and labor. These subjects were likewise investigated considering the point of view and everyday experiences of a group of individuals and families who benefitted from poverty relief programs. To do so, we conducted an ethnographic study in an peripheral neighborhood in São Paulo city, analyzing the families trajectories institutionally categorized as poor, demonstrating the multiplicity of survival strategies and means of guaranteeing income and well-being, as well as the diversity of native forms of describing and representing these strategies. Familial composition and their dynamics, origin, gender and generation appeared as crucial dimensions in analysis. It revealed the intensity with which different meanings of labor were constructed, manipulated and disputed in the daily lives of individuals in contexts of poverty. We observed the transformations in the narratives, strategies and dynamics of poor people's relationships with the structural circuits of their survival: markets, State, family, friendships and neighborhood networks. This complex mesh of activities with which individuals engage in to earn a living formal and informal, legal and illegal, moral and immoral, visible and invisible , challenge governmental discourses and practices as well as the understanding of the Sociology of Labor.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-03-06
 
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