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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2006.tde-11012008-112407
Document
Author
Full name
Maria Cecilia Pedreira de Almeida
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Kuntz, Rolf Nelson (President)
Lopes, Jose Reinaldo de Lima
Nascimento, Milton Meira do
Title in Portuguese
Escravos, súditos e homens: a noção de consentimento na polêmica Locke-Filmer
Keywords in Portuguese
Consentimento
Lei natural
Liberdade
Patriarcalismo
Poder político
Abstract in Portuguese
Os Dois tratados sobre o governo, de John Locke, têm um papel de destaque na filosofia política das Luzes. Neles, ao afirmar as idéias de liberdade e igualdade naturais dos homens, o autor mina as bases do pensamento absolutista. Apesar de ser no Segundo tratado que o autor estabelece de modo mais evidente sua teoria política, é importante notar que o pressuposto lógico desta obra é o Primeiro tratado sobre o governo, texto menos conhecido e estudado pela história da filosofia, no qual Locke refuta de forma minuciosa as idéias de Robert Filmer, sistematizador da doutrina patriarcalista e do direito divino dos reis. Ao rejeitar argumentos de Filmer, Locke mostra que o poder político não se constitui apenas de vontade, mas envolve consenso, lei e entendimento. O propósito deste trabalho é apresentar o lado menos conhecido desse debate: os argumentos elaborados por Filmer para criticar a teoria da soberania popular e o contratualismo nem sempre são respondidos com eficácia absoluta por Locke. Além disso, a intenção é também expor o quanto o pensamento lockiano é marcado pelas asserções de Filmer, cujas idéias podem ter mais importância do que história da filosofia lhe tem atribuído.
Title in English
Slaves, vassals and men: the idea of consent in the Locke-Filmer polemics
Keywords in English
Consent
Liberty
Natural law
Patriarchalism
Political power
Abstract in English
John Locke's "Two Treatises on Government" have an important role in the political philosophy of the Enlightenment. By stating the ideas of the natural liberty and equality of men, the author undermines the bases of the absolutist thought. If it is in the Second Treatise that the author establishes his political theory in a more evident way, it is important to notice that the logical presupposition of this work is the First Treatise on Government, a less known text in which Locke refutes in a minutious way the ideas of Robert Filmer, who sistematized the patriarchalist doctrine, as well as the one concerning the divine right of kings. By rejecting Filmer's statements, Locke shows that political power is not constituted only by will, but involves consent, law and understanding. This work aims to present an aspect of this debate which is less known: the arguments elaborated by Filmer to criticize the theory of popular sovereignty as well as contractarianism are not always answered with total eficacy by Locke. Besides, we intend to expose how much the Lockean thought is determined by Filmer, whose thought may have a greater importance than what the history of philosophy has attributed to it.
 
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Publishing Date
2008-01-18
 
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