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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2019.tde-18032019-124408
Document
Author
Full name
Mauro Dela Bandera Arco Júnior
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Souza, Maria das Graças de (President)
Becker, Evaldo
Freitas, Jacira de
Moscateli, Renato
Pimenta, Pedro Paulo Garrido
Title in Portuguese
A origem da alteração e a alteração de origem: antropologias de Rousseau
Keywords in Portuguese
Antropologia
Filosofia das luzes
História natural
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Linguagem
Abstract in Portuguese
Dada a notoriedade do desenvolvimento da antropologia (na etimologia grega entendida como estudo do homem) durante o século das luzes e sendo Rousseau um de seus expoentes, o objetivo central desta tese é investigar os diferentes sentidos, não apreensíveis de forma unívoca, assumidos pela investigação antropológica em seus textos. O eixo que orienta a análise está na passagem do homem físico ao homem moral, o que remete à oposição entre o homem natural e o homem do homem. Dela resultam duas abordagens metodológicas, a saber: a antropologia negativa que busca por uma ficção desvelar o homem do puro estado de natureza e a antropologia positiva que, por meio de um método etnográfico, observa os homens reais (selvagens ou civilizados). Esta é a formulação geral a partir da qual foram desenvolvidas diferentes alternativas teóricas para a inteligibilidade do que vem a ser o homem e sua relação com as forças agentivas que o conformam. Definidos os termos da oposição que configuram o problema antropológico: como conceber a passagem do homem físico do puro estado de natureza ao homem moral, o homem do homem? O caminho que parte de um modelo originário se realiza enquanto degeneração e afastamento, ao passo que outro caminho multiplica as origens de modo a afirmar positivamente as diferenças. Donde se pensa a mudança de um discurso sobre a origem e sua alteração para outro sobre a alteração de origem ou alterações originárias, o que anuncia o saber etnológico ao recusar a identificação ou aproximação obrigatória de uma cultura particular à natureza, abrindo assim espaço para a alteridade.
Title in English
The origin of the alteration and the alteration of origin: anthropologies of Rousseau
Keywords in English
Anthropology
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Language
Natural history
Philosophy of the Enlightenment
Abstract in English
Given the notoriety of the development of anthropology (that in the Greek etymology is understood as a study of man) during the century of the Enlightenment, and being Rousseau one of its exponents, the central objective of this thesis is to investigate the different meanings, not univocally apprehended, expressed by anthropological investigation in authors texts. The axis that guides the analysis is found in the passage of the physical man to the moral man, which refers to the opposition between the natural man and the man of the man. From this idea results two methodological approaches, namely: the negative anthropology, which seeks to reveal by a fiction the man from the pure state of nature, and the positive anthropology, which observes the real men (savage or civilized) by means of an ethnographic method. This is the general formulation from which different theoretical alternatives for the intelligibility of what is the man, and his relationship with the agentive forces that conform him, have been developed. Thus, the terms of the opposition that configure the anthropological problem are defined: how to conceive the passage of the physical man since the pure state of nature to a moral man, the man of man? The path that starts from an original model unfolds as degeneration and deviation, while another path multiplies the origins in order to affirm positively the differences. It entails the change of a discourse on the origin, and its alteration, to another one on the alteration of origin, or original alterations, which announces the ethnological knowledge by refusing the identification or mandatory approachment of a particular culture to the nature, thus opening space for otherness.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-03-18
 
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