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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2019.tde-25022019-115902
Document
Author
Full name
Tiago Mathyas Ferrador
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Plastino, Caetano Ernesto (President)
Bueno, Otavio Augusto Santos
Mariconda, Pablo Ruben
Oliva, Alberto
Pessoa Junior, Osvaldo Frota
Title in Portuguese
Prospectos do empirismo atual: uma análise crítica dos empirismos construtivo, estrutural, contextual e social, e a defesa de uma proposta empirista para a teoria social
Keywords in Portuguese
Empirismo
Epistemologia
Filosofia da ciência
Sociologia do conhecimento
Abstract in Portuguese
A princípio, esta investigação versa sobre as teorias empiristas contemporâneas a partir do programa empirista estabelecido pelo filósofo da ciência Bas van Fraassen, a partir da década de 1980. Assim, o nosso problema de pesquisa parte do referido autor, em seus pontos fortes e fracos, para realizarmos um diálogo com concepções empiristas atualmente em desenvolvimento: o empirismo contextual crítico de Helen Longino e empirismo social de Miriam Solomon. Depois, traçamos um panorama da discussão entre filósofos e sociólogos da ciência, abrangendo o empirismo lógico e as várias propostas dentro da sociologia da ciência: o funcionalismo de Robert K. Merton, o Programa Forte, e as teorias microssociológicas de Karin Knorr-Cetina e Bruno Latour. Tal painel possibilita uma visão mais ampla dos fundamentos teóricos tanto do programa empirista de van Fraassen como das teorias empiristas de Longino e de Solomon. No mais, o exame da sociologia da ciência foi de grande valia pelos argumentos arregimentados em favor do caráter social do conhecimento: ponto este que é crucial na nossa defesa empirista. Em seguida, examinamos criticamente o projeto empirista de van Fraassen, para podermos cotejá-lo com as novas teorias empiristas de Longino e de Solomon, as quais também são analisadas nos seus pormenores. Então, com base nas questões específicas do empirismo de van Fraassen, verificamos de que forma as mencionadas teorias empiristas contribuem, ou até resolvem flancos teóricos do filósofo em tela. Por fim, elaboramos uma proposta empirista que tentou reunir de modo harmonioso e competente as teses mais importantes dos/as autores/as em questão, visando a construção de uma teoria da ciência empirista aplicada às ciências sociais, no caso, à teoria social atual.
Title in English
Prospects of current empiricism: a critical analysis of constructive, structural, contextual and social empiricism, and the defense of an empiricist proposal for social theory
Keywords in English
Empiricism
Epistemology
Philosophy of science
Sociology of knowledge
Abstract in English
Initially, this research deals with contemporary empiricist theories since the program established by the philosopher of science Bas van Fraassen, from the 1980s: constructive empiricism, empiricism as stance and structural empiricism. Thus, our research problem grounds on the author's strengths and weaknesses, to engage in a dialogue with empiricist conceptions currently under development: Helen Longino's critical contextual empiricism and Miriam Solomon's social empiricism. Then we draw an overview of the discussion between philosophers and sociologists of science, encompassing logical empiricism and the various proposals within the sociology of science: Robert K. Merton's functionalism, the Strong Program, and the micro-sociological theories of Karin Knorr-Cetina and Bruno Latour. Such a panel provides a broader view of the theoretical foundations of both the empiricist program of van Fraassen and the empiricist theories of Longino and Solomon. In addition, the examination of the sociology of science was of great value for the arguments put forward in favor of the social character of knowledge: this is a crucial point in our empiricist defense. Next, we critically examine van Fraassen's empiricist project so that we can compare it with the new empiricist theories of Longino and Solomon, which we analyze in detail. Then, based on the specific questions of van Fraassen's empiricism, we see how the aforementioned empiricist theories contribute, or even resolve the theoretical shortcomings in his views. Finally, we elaborated an empiricist proposal that tried to gather in a harmonious and competent way the most important theses of these philosophers, aiming at the construction of a theory of science applied to the social sciences, in this case, to the current social theory.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-02-25
 
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