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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2017.tde-03032017-113708
Document
Author
Full name
Flávio Benedito
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Coggiola, Osvaldo Luis Angel (President)
Andrade, Everaldo de Oliveira
Pereira Neto, Murilo Leal
Villa, Rafael Antonio Duarte
Zagni, Rodrigo Medina
Title in Portuguese
Economia petroleira venezuelana: o dilema entre a soberania econômica e a dependência estrutural (1973-1998)
Keywords in Portuguese
Abertura petroleira
Dependência estrutural
Economia petroleira
Movimentos sociais
Subdesenvolvimento
Abstract in Portuguese
A atividade petroleira constitui, desde as primeiras décadas do século XX, o cerne da vida econômica da Venezuela contemporânea. A importância que essa atividade veio adquirindo desde então foi tal que todas as principais decisões de política econômica nacional lhe dizem respeito, e representam inevitavelmente consequências de monta para o conjunto da sociedade venezuelana. Este estudo adota como ponto de partida uma reflexão crítica sobre a natureza e o alcance histórico das mudanças sociais e políticas que ocorrem atualmente no continente latino-americano, ou seja, sobretudo a ascensão dos governos progressistas (dentre eles, destacadamente, o bolivarianismo chavista), cujo maior desafio hoje encontra-se no confronto real entre as oportunidades de autonomização econômica (reconhecidas e proclamadas pelo discurso político progressista) e, em sentido contrário, as forças de perpetuação da dependência estrutural e do subdesenvolvimento, nas condições inerentes ao capitalismo dependente da região. Em seguida, o estudo detém-se em descrever o período da história venezuelana delimitado pelos anos de 1973 e 1998, interregno no qual uma questão essencial residiu no dilema entre a conquista da soberania econômica (condição necessária da democracia social) e a sujeição aos interesses imperialistas do grande capital estrangeiro, representados pelas empresas petrolíferas instaladas no país. As formas concretas que assumiu a nacionalização da indústria petroleira nos anos 1970, o modo de participação que daí resultou dessas empresas estrangeiras na exploração petrolífera durante as décadas de 1980 e 1990 quando paulatinamente a política oficial foi-se orientando pelas prescrições do neoliberalismo (materializadas na assim chamada Abertura Petroleira) e os desdobramentos sociais (sob a forma de conflitos de classe) dessas decisões econômicas compõem o cenário histórico venezuelano aqui estudado, o qual, ao final do século, expunha a crise do modelo rentista adotado e a dissolução das alianças políticas tradicionais crise que, por fim, deu ensejo à vitória político-eleitoral do partido chavista, em dezembro de 1998, ponto inicial do progressismo de hoje.
Title in English
Venezuelan oil economy: the dilemma between economic sovereignty and structural dependency (1973-1998)
Keywords in English
Oil economy
Oil opening
Social movements
Structural dependence
Underdevelopment
Abstract in English
Oil activity constitutes, since the first decades of 20th century, the core of contemporary Venezuelan economy. The importance this activity has acquired since then was such that all the main decisions of the national economic policy concern it, and inevitably represent far-reaching consequences for the Venezuelan society. This study starts from a critical reflection on the nature and historical scope of social and political changes that occur in Latin America, i.e., the rise of progressive governments (among them, markedly, Chavist Bolivarianism), whose main challenge today is the actual confrontation between opportunities of economic autonomization (recognized and proclaimed by the progressist political discourse) and, conversely, forces of perpetuation of structural dependence and underdevelopment, in the inherent conditions in the regions dependent capitalism. Then, the study will describe the Venezuelan history from 1973 to 1998, interregnum in which an essential issue was in the dilemma between the achievement of economic sovereignty (social democracy necessary condition) and the subjection to imperialist interests of great foreign capital, represented by oil companies established in the country. The concrete forms the oil industry nationalization took form in the 1970s, the way of participation which resulted from those foreign companies in the oil exploration in the 1980s and 1990s when gradually the official policy was guided by neoliberalism prescriptions (materialized in the Oil Opening Policy) and the social unfoldings (in the form of class conflicts) of those economic decisions make up the Venezuelan historical setting studied here, which, at the end of the century, exposed the adopted rentist model crisis and the dissolution of traditional political alliances a crisis which eventually gave opportunity to Chavist party political-electoral victory, in December 1998, point of departure of the present-day progressivism .
 
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Publishing Date
2017-03-03
 
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