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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2012.tde-22082012-105827
Document
Author
Full name
Felipe Pereira Loureiro
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Colistete, Renato Perim (President)
Bastos, Pedro Paulo Zahluth
Fonseca, Pedro Cezar Dutra
Fontes, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro
Lamounier, Maria Lucia
Title in Portuguese
Empresários, Trabalhadores e Grupos de Interesse: a Política Econômica nos Governos Jânio Quadros e João Goulart, 1961-1964
Keywords in Portuguese
Empresários
Grupos de interesse
Jânio Quadros
João Goulart
Política econômica
Trabalhadores
Abstract in Portuguese
Esta tese analisa a formulação e a implementação da política econômica no Brasil durante as administrações de Jânio Quadros e João Goulart (1961-1964). O objetivo principal é compreender as razões da incapacidade do governo brasileiro para enfrentar os problemas econômicos do período, tais como a inflação e os desequilíbrios no balanço de pagamentos. Explora-se o modo pelo qual determinados grupos sociais, principalmente empresários, trabalhadores e representantes de Estados estrangeiros, interferiram nos resultados da política econômica. Por meio do uso de um amplo conjunto de fontes, abrangendo relatórios empresariais de caráter confidencial, periódicos operários, jornais comerciais e documentos dos governos brasileiro, britânico e norte-americano, conclui-se que as reações dos grupos de interesse foram fundamentais para explicar o fracasso dos planos econômicos do início dos anos 1960, apesar de cada período ter apresentado especificidades importantes. Enquanto na administração Quadros as atitudes dos empresários desempenharam um papel decisivo, na fase final da presidência de João Goulart o foco residiu no agudo conflito distributivo entre capital e trabalho, que levou ao abandono do Plano Trienal de Celso Furtado. As conclusões são relevantes na medida em que estudiosos reconhecem que a intensificação das dificuldades econômicas desse contexto tiveram um impacto decisivo na derrubada do regime político democrático em 1964, abrindo caminho para os 21 anos de regime militar no Brasil.
Title in English
Entrepreneurs, Workers and Interest Groups: Economic Policy during the Governments of Jânio Quadros and João Goulart, 1961-1964
Keywords in English
Economic policy
Entrepreneurs
Interest groups
Jânio Quadros
João Goulart
Workers
Abstract in English
This thesis analyses the formulation and implementation of economic policy in Brazil during the administrations of Jânio Quadros and João Goulart (1961-1964). The main objective is to understand why the Brazilian government was unable to tackle the countrys most urgent economic problems, such as rising inflation and a mounting balance of payments crisis. To do so, the study explores the way social groups, including entrepreneurs, workers, and representatives of foreign nation states, influenced economic policy outcomes. Making use of a wide range of data from confidential employers reports, labor periodicals and commercial newspapers, through to official government sources from Brazil, the U.K. and U.S. the thesis concludes that interest groups reactions are fundamental to explaining why economic programs failed in the early 1960s. While during the administration of Jânio Quadros employers attitudes played a major role, in the final phase of João Goularts presidency, a great distributional struggle broke out between capital and labor, setting the stage for the collapse of Celso Furtados Three-Year Plan. The findings are of great relevance given scholars general recognition that the inadequacy of the Brazilian government in tackling economic problems had a decisive impact on the fall of democracy in 1964, in turn paving the way for a 21-year military dictatorship.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-08-22
 
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