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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2007.tde-05072007-144427
Document
Author
Full name
Marcelo Augusto Moraes Gomes
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Alambert Junior, Francisco Cabral
Benevides, Cezar Augusto Carneiro
Dantes, Maria Amelia Mascarenhas
Ferlini, Vera Lucia Amaral
Maximiano, Cesar Campiani
Title in Portuguese
A Espuma das Províncias ' - um estudo sobre os Inválidos da Pátria e o Asilo dos Inválidos da Pátria, na Corte (1864-1930)
Keywords in Portuguese
Asilo dos Inválidos da Pátria
Ex-combatentes
Guerra do Paraguai
História Militar
Rio de Janeiro
Abstract in Portuguese
Em 1868, foi inaugurado na Ilha do Bom Jesus, na Baía da Guanabara, o Asilo dos Inválidos da Pátria, espaço reservado, em um primeiro momento, e segundo as justificativas explícitas e utilizadas, para garantir unicamente, por mera filantropia, o sustento de numeroso contingente de veteranos da "Guerra do Paraguai", oriundo do exército em operações. Muitos, entre os anos de 1865 e 1870, foram desmobilizados portando doenças crônicas ou mutilações de seus membros inferiores e superiores, e que se tornaram uma demanda social, grave, para ser revolvida pela administração pública. Eles ficaram conhecidos como os inválidos da pátria. Entretanto, outras intenções foram identificadas, podendo se afirmar que elas determinaram a feitura do estabelecimento, quando provisório, e depois, como efetivo. Intenções emanadas de percepções que existiram sobre aqueles homens, e suas peculiares condições físicas, e até morais. Outros propósitos, não óbvios, definiram a promoção do estabelecimento entre os anos de 1867 e 1868, na ilha, e que não foram observados explicitamente; mas condicionaram as iniciativas que foram providenciadas, relativas aos inválidos que desembarcavam mensalmente no Rio de Janeiro, e assinalam o que eles realmente significaram para determinados segmentos residentes e atuantes na Corte. Percepção vulgar, sobre o asilo, é que ele foi construído pelos resultados de uma subscrição pública, promovida em todo o império e executada pelos comerciantes estabelecidos no Rio de Janeiro, membros da antiga Praça do Comércio, depois renomeada Associação Comercial do Rio de Janeiro. No entanto, segundo as investigações nos arquivos, desvendou-se que ele foi edificado pelos esforços pessoais de D. Pedro II, coadjuvado por alguns de seus ministros, mormente os que ocuparam o Ministério da Guerra, entre os anos de 1865 e 1868. O trabalho tem como proposta verificar o que aqueles homens, considerados inúteis e ociosos, representaram. Para isso, e parte importante sobre o entendimento do inválido da pátria, procurou investigar algumas particularidades do serviço médico prestado aos militares, principalmente a cirurgia militar praticada. Buscou, da mesma forma, investigar algumas características do combate e dos combatentes pelas memórias de veteranos, entre outros documentos coletados na investigação. Palavras-chave: Asilo dos Inválidos da
Title in English
A espuma das províncias: um estudo sobre os Inválidos da Pátria e o Asilo dos Inválidos da Pátria, na Corte (1864 -1930).
Keywords in English
Asilo dos Inválidos da Pátria
Military History
Rio de Janeiro
Triple Alliance War
Veterans
Abstract in English
In 1868, the Asilo dos Inválidos da Pátria was inaugurated on the island of Bom Jesus, at the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro. Allegedly, at the moment of its creation, the asylum came into being due to philanthropic motivations, in order to guarantee the well being of numerous veterans of the Triple Alliance War who were returning home from the Theatre of Operations. Many of these men were demobilized between 1865 and 1870, bearing chronic diseases or mutilations of upper and lower limbs. They originated acute social troubles, to be solved by the public administration. The men were to become known as the inválidos da pátria. However, some other intentions were identified during the course of the present research. They influenced the trajectory of the institution, from the moment when it was proposed as a temporary shelter for veterans to the point where it was decided that it should be permanent. These intentions were motivated by the then current perceptions that concerned the veterans, their physical conditions and even their moral principles. There were still even other subjacent purposes that influenced the existence of the institution, during the years of 1867 and 1868, but these have not been thoroughly discerned, even if the intentions in question were determinant to the policies that were reserved to the veterans that landed every month in Rio de Janeiro. Contrary to popular belief, the asylum was not built through the collection of public donations, in an effort supposedly coordinated by businessmen from Rio de Janeiro. Rather, archival research has been able to demonstrate that the asylum was erected thanks to the personal involvement of Emperor Pedro II, seconded by some of his closest ministers, especially those in charge of the Ministério da Guerra between 1865 and 1868. The present research intends to contextualize the existence of those veterans through historical research, staying clear from the general perceptions that were current in Rio de Janeiro?s court society, that considered the wounded veterans to be idle, useless and morally corrupted. The point of departure for this task was the asylum. To understand the situation that led a man to be institutionalized, field operations of the Brazilian Army´s Medical Service were investigated, especially when it came to battlefield surgery. Additionally, the research was also concerned with establishing what combat was like for the front line soldiers during the Triple Alliance War, by means of veterans? memoirs, among other documental evidence.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-08-03
 
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