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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2006.tde-07072006-124258
Document
Author
Full name
Germana Fernandes Barata
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Santos Filho, Gildo Magalhaes dos (President)
Capelato, Maria Helena Rolim
Nascimento, Dilene Raimundo do
Title in Portuguese
"A primeira década da AIDS no Brasil: o Fantástico apresenta a doença ao público (1983 a 1992)"
Keywords in Portuguese
Aids
divulgação científica
história das doenças
saúde pública
televisão
Abstract in Portuguese
Este trabalho analisa como a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (Aids), considerada a maior epidemia do século XX, foi divulgada pelo programa Fantástico, da Rede Globo de televisão, entre 1983 e 1992, primeira década em que a doença aparece na mídia brasileira. No caso da Aids, a televisão, principal fonte de informação da população, desempenhou papel chave ao apresentá-la ao público, muito antes que os governos, profissionais da saúde e pesquisadores tivessem respostas seguras sobre a doença. Das 105 notícias divulgadas no programa durante a década, selecionou-se 26 que priorizaram os aspectos científicos da enfermidade - encontros científicos, descobertas e avanços na prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento. Por ser desconhecida, mortal e sexualmente transmissível, principalmente, a Aids encontrou espaço reservado no Fantástico, que valoriza histórias extraordinárias, bizarras e grotescas, inspiradas no gênero fait divers. Trabalhos que abordaram a televisão enquanto meio de divulgação da Aids são escassos e lidam apenas com campanhas de prevenção da doença. O programa foi pioneiro na divulgação do nome Aids na grande mídia ao exibir em 27 de março de 1983 uma matéria que já trazia a dimensão de “epidemia do século”. A cobertura priorizou o cenário nacional e o discurso científico, reservando um bom espaço para a divulgação da doença e contribuindo para informar a população sobre os meios de prevenção, os avanços científicos em relação à enfermidade e à qualidade do sistema de saúde público brasileiro. No entanto, fica claro também o fortalecimento dos mitos e metáforas relativos à história das doenças e à ciência, além dos preconceitos e estigmas contra seus pacientes, sobretudo os pertencentes aos chamados grupos de risco, o que pode ter contribuído para distanciar o telespectador da realidade da doença. A mídia, cuja relação de divulgação com a ciência, é tantas vezes problemática, no caso do programa Fantástico preencheu algumas lacunas junto ao grande público, mas deixou a descoberto os flancos por onde entram as questões bioéticas, morais e, no final, ideológicas.
Title in English
"The first decade of AIDS in Brazil: Fantástico presents a new disease to the public (1983 to 1992)"
Keywords in English
Aids
history of diseases
public health
science communication
television
Abstract in English
This work analyses how the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Aids), considered the most extensive epidemic of the 20th Century, has been broadcasted by the TV show Fantástico, from the Brazilian television network Globo, in the first decade in which the disease appeared in the Brazilian media, 1983-1992. Television, as the main source of information for the population at large, played a key role in presenting Aids to the public, well before governments, health professionals and scientists had reliable answers about this disease. Out of 105 pieces of news broadcasted by Fantástico, 26 were selected as those giving priority to the scientific aspects of the syndrome – scientific meetings, discoveries and advances in its prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Aids has naturally found a privileged space in Fantástico, in large account due to its unknown, lethal, sexually transmitted nature, which fits well into the scope of this TV show, with emphasis on the extraordinary, bizarre or even grotesque, very much inspired in the old tradition of the fait divers. There are few works analyzing television as a medium for popularization of Aids and those that do so focus on prevention campaigns. Fantástico was a pioneer program in spreading the name Aids in the Brazilian news media, when it broadcasted a show in which the disease was already called the “ 20th Century epidemics” on March 27, 1983. The coverage of Aids by this show has emphasized the national scenario and the scientific discourse, giving a reasonable space for the diffusion of information concerning the disease, telling the population of the available means for its prevention and the scientific advances towards understanding Aids and the quality of the Brazilian public health system. However, it is clear that this TV show has also contributed to the strengthening of myths and metaphors concerning science, the history of diseases, as well as prejudices and stigmas against its patients, a factor that has probably played a role in drifting away the spectator from the crude reality of the disease. Fantástico has filled in important gaps in the knowledge of the population at large, but at the cost of leaving aside the great moral, bioethical and ideological issues.
 
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Publishing Date
2006-08-01
 
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