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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2011.tde-10082012-170442
Document
Author
Full name
Lorena Feres da Silva Telles
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Dias, Maria Odila Leite da Silva (President)
Bosi, Eclea
Wissenbach, Maria Cristina Cortez
Title in Portuguese
Libertas entre sobrados: contratos de trabalho doméstico em São Paulo na derrocada da escravidão
Keywords in Portuguese
Abolição
História das mulheres
Libertas
Mulheres negras
São Paulo
Século XIX
Trabalho doméstico
Abstract in Portuguese
A pesquisa acompanha as experiências sociais de mulheres escravas, libertas e descendentes livres, na cidade de São Paulo, durante o último quartel do século XIX, no processo social da transição do trabalho escravo para o livre. Pesquisamos livros de inscrições e de contratos de trabalho livre, exigências previstas pelas Posturas Municipais sobre Criados e Amas de Leite, de 1886. O conjunto de regulamentos vinha formalizar deveres e obrigações para empregadores e trabalhadores livres, no contexto do crescimento urbano acelerado, do processo avançado da abolição e da política imigratória que conduziam para a Capital imigrantes pobres e libertos destutelados. Migrantes das regiões escravistas da Província e daquelas que forneceram escravos para o tráfico interprovincial, africanas livres e nascidas na Capital empregaram-se nas residências das elites e camadas médias urbanas. Vislumbramos as estratégias de sobrevivência das agentes do trabalho doméstico livres e pobres, que a polícia registrava nos anos finais do regime escravista. Afastadas das atividades rentáveis, no contexto de pouca diversificação econômica, ex-escravas e descendentes livres sobreviveram dos parcos ganhos auferidos daqueles serviços socialmente desqualificados, dos quais os membros das elites e classes médias dependiam: fazendeiros, estrangeiros proprietários de hotéis, donos de confeitarias, coronéis, funcionários públicos, profissionais liberais, viúvas pobres e remediadas. Reconstituímos o cotidiano dos variados trabalhos que desempenharam a cozinha, a lavagem e o engomado das roupas, a limpeza da casa, o cuidado e o aleitamento de crianças , transitando entre as ruas, as várzeas dos rios e o tenso ambiente das casas. Das entrelinhas dos textos emergem libertas dispostas a improvisar variadas formas de resistência e recusa à opressão cotidiana. Experimentaram as liberdades possíveis e inegociáveis: recusaram com suas indisciplinas as jornadas extenuantes de trabalho, conquistaram aumentos salariais, cuidaram de seus doentes, compartilharam moradias com seus companheiros e filhos. Abandonando por fim os sobrados, indispuseram-se ao assédio sexual, aos maus tratos e aos baixos ordenados, que nem sempre recebiam: permanências de um escravismo doméstico e persistente, que, com suas práticas, ousaram recusar.
Title in English
Released slaves among houses: Contracts of domestic work in São Paulo in the overthrow of slavery
Keywords in English
19th century
Black women
Domestic work.
Released slaves
São Paulo
Slave emancipation
Women´s history
Abstract in English
The research assembles the social experiences of slave women, released and free descendants in São Paulo during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, in the social process of transition from slave work to freedom. In order to accomplished our aim, we rummage into the books, subscriptions and free employment contracts, requirements established by Municipal ordinances on Criadas e Amas de Leite, from 1886. The ensemble of regulations was made in order to formalize the duties and obligations for employers and free employees , in the context of hasty urban growth the advanced process of abolition and the immigration policy that led, to the main city, poor immigrants and unruly people. Migrants from provincial slavery region sand those slaveholders who provided slaves to an interprovincial trafficking, mainly free African born, were employed in the elite and urban middle classes residences. We glimpse the survival strategies from poor and free agents of the housework registered by the police during the final years of the slave regime. Displaced from profitable activities in the context of low economic diversification, formers slaves and free descendants survived from meager gains earned from these socially unskilled services of which the members of the elite and middle classes depended and profited: farmers, foreigners hotel owners, colonels, civil servants, professional, widows and poor remedied. Our research attempt to reconstruct the daily life of several jobs that these free women have done in the new social order: the kitchen, washing and ironing clothes, cleaning the house, care and feeding children, traffic in the streets, the riverside and the tense environment of the houses. Reading between the lines of texts, it is possible to observe the existence of released women willing to improvise various ways of resistance and rejection of everyday oppression. Their experience makes possible ways of non-negotiable freedom, refusing, with their misbehavior, the days of exhausting work, consequently, winning wage increases, caring for their patients and the possibility of sharing housing with their partners and children. With the further abandon of the traditional townhouses, they eventually avoid the sexual harassment and the bad treatment: sojourn of domestic and persistent slavery, that these women, with their daily practices, have dared to decline.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-08-10
 
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