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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.81.2018.tde-27082018-140320
Document
Author
Full name
Fabiana Botelho Kneubil
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Robilotta, Manoel Roberto (President)
Cruz, Frederico Firmo de Souza
Pinto, Reynaldo Daniel
Title in Portuguese
As facetas do conhecimento físico e um modelo: a luz e a matéria
Keywords in Portuguese
estrutura do conhecimento físico
modelo de Drude
modelos no ensino
teorias e fenômeno
Abstract in Portuguese
Discutimos, nesse trabalho, aspectos das dimensões fenomenológica e teórica do conhecimento físico e o papel dos modelos como ponte unificadora dessas duas facetas do conhecimento. No âmbito do ensino, percebemos que as teorias ensinadas são muito pouco relacionadas aos fenômenos que permeiam o cotidiano dos alunos. Por isso, enfatizamos a importância do uso de modelos como instrumentos capazes de promover uma ligação entre o mundo abstrato, representado pelas teorias e o mundo palpável, representado pelos fenômenos. Discutimos, também, essas dimensões separadamente, com o propósito de ressaltar que muitas das dificuldades do ensino de física têm origem na epistemologia. Com o objetivo de dar realidade à infinidade de nuances que o conhecimento físico contempla, na segunda parte desse trabalho, confeccionamos um texto abordando a interação de ondas eletromagnéticas com a matéria, voltado para estudantes de graduação. Esse tema foi explorado com o auxílio de um modelo, chamado modelo de Drude, no qual a teoria do eletromagnetismo, representada pelas equações de Maxwell, é adaptada às características de um metal. Nesse texto didático procuramos explicitar, da maneira mais clara possível, as ligações entre idéias físicas e o mundo real, de modo a possibilitar que os estudantes venham a ter uma relação mais nova, rica e bonita com a física.
Title in English
The Facets of Physical Knowledge and a Model: the Light and the Matter
Keywords in English
Drude's model
models in teaching
structure of physical knowledge
theories and phenomenon
Abstract in English
In this work we discuss both phenomenological and theoretical aspects of knowledge in Physics and the role of models as bridges between them. As far as teaching is concerned, we remark that the theories taught to students normally bear very little relation with phenomena in dayly life. Therefore we emphasize the need of using models as tools in order to promote meaningful links between the abstract world represented by theories and the real world, represented by phenomena. We discuss separately each of these dimensions, with the purpose of stressing that many of the difficulties in teaching Physics have their origin in epistemology. In the second part of this work we produce a pedagogical text dealing with the interaction between electromagnetic waves and matter, in order to realize the many faces that physical knowledge may have. This subject was approached with the help a model, known as Drude model, in which electromagnetic theory, represented by Maxwell equations, is adapted to the features of a metal. In this text we have tried to make explicit, as clearly as possible, the links between physical ideas and the real world, so that students may develop a new, rich and beautiful relationship with Physics.
 
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Publishing Date
2018-09-06
 
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