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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.82.2008.tde-20062008-155600
Document
Author
Full name
Kelly Steinkopf Caetano
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani (President)
Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher
Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação do tratamento de úlceras venosas crônicas com fototerapia (LEDs) e sulfadiazina de prata a 1%
Keywords in Portuguese
Cicatrização de feridas
Fototerapia
Interpretação de imagem assistida por computador
Lasers
Úlcera varicosa
Abstract in Portuguese
Úlcera venenosa é o tipo de úlcera mais freqüente nos membros inferiores, conseqüente à insuficiência venosa crônica. Há várias condutas terapêuticas para o seu tratamento, desde terapias tópicas como a sulfadiazina de prata a 1% a aparelhos bioestimuladores como fototerapia, ultra-som e outros. A fototerapia por laser ou LEDs (diodos emissores de luz) tem sido estudada principalmente como método bioestimulador para o reparo tecidual e alívio da dor. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a eficácia do tratamento com fototerapia (LEDs) associado ao curativo diário de sulfadiazina de prata a 1% creme (SDZ) em pacientes com úlceras venosas crônicas. Estudo randomizado, duplo-cego, no qual foi utilizado aparelho de fototerapia (Dynatron 880 Infrared Therapy Probe - Dynatron Solaris) contendo 2 sondas de conformação idêntica, cujas especificidades foram reveladas apenas ao final do estudo: sonda 1 (1 LED de 644 nm, 18 mW, 1,12 J/'CM POT.2') e sonda 2 (1 LED de 641 nm e 32 LEDs de 891 nm; 131 mW; 1,57 J/'CM POT.2'). Foram selecionados 20 pacientes com 32 úlceras venosas crônicas, atendidos no ambulatório de úlceras da dermatologia do CSE-FMRP-USP, das quais se constituíram 3 grupos (G) distintos pela forma de tratamento: G1-sonda 1 e SDZ; G2-sonda 2 e SDZ e G3-somente SDZ, seguidos por 90 dias. Após a assepsia das úlceras, as sondas foram aplicadas pontualmente sobre a ferida protegida com PVC, a 1,5 J/'CM POT.2', durante 30 seg/5 'CM POT.2', 2x/semana, e posterior curativo com SDZ. Quinzenalmente, as úlceras foram fotografadas digitalmente e suas imagens avaliadas por meio do software Image J (marca registrada), para mensuração das áreas total, de tecido de granulação (cor vermelha) e de esfacelo/fibrina (cor amarela). Foram calculados os índices de cicatrização das úlceras (ICU) pela fórmula [(ICU=Ai-Af)/Ai], sendo Ai (área inicial) e Af (área final). O ICUs médios do G2 foram de 0,3 e 0,5 no 30º e 90º dias com redução significante das áreas ulceradas (p < 0,01), quando comparado ao G3 com ICUs médios de -0,08 e -0,03 respectivamente. No G1, apenas no 90º dia, o ICU médio (0,42) foi diferente do G3 (-0,03), sendo p < 0,01. Ao considerar a freqüência das úlceras pequenas com ICU '> OU =' 0,4, o G2 teve esse índice alcançado por 75% das úlceras no 30º e no 90º dias, enquanto o G1 o atingiu em 33% das úlceras somente no 60º dia. À análise espectofotométrica no final do estudo, observou-se que os LEDs de 641 nm não emitiam luz eficaz na sonda 2, a qual se constituía essencialmente de LEDs de 891 nm. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a fototerapia LED 891 nm acelerou o processo cicatricial das úlceras venosas crônicas em relação ao LED 644 nm e, ambos, em relação à sulfadiazina de prata a 1%, corroborando as evidências de vários estudos in vivo e in vitro sobre o uso de fototerapia (laser e LEDs) de 600 a 1000 nm no reparo tecidual. Desta forma, a fototerapia por LEDs mostrou-se como um bom método físico, bioestimulador, não invasivo e coadjuvante aos tratamentos convencionais para úlceras venosas, como a sulfadiazina de prata a 1%
Title in English
Evolution of treatment of chronic venous ulcers with phototherapy (LEDs) and silver sulfadiazine to 1%
Keywords in English
Interpretation of image commissioned for computer
Lasers
Phototherapy
Varicose ulcer
Wound healing
Abstract in English
Venous ulcer is the most common type of ulcer in the lower limbs, consequent to chronic venous insufficiency. There are several forms to treat them from topical therapies such as 1% silver sulfadiazine cream to biostimulators devices as ultrasound, phototherapy and others. The phototherapy laser or LEDs (light-emitting diode) has been studied, mainly as biostimulator method for tissue repair and pain relief. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of treatment with phototherapy (LEDs) associated with the daily dressing of 1% silver sulfadiazine cream (SDZ) in patients with chronic venous ulcers. This study was randomized, double-blind, in which device was used for phototherapy (Dynatron 880 Infrared Therapy Probe - Dynatron Solaris) containing 2 probes of similar conformation and their specifications were revealed only at the end of the study: probe 1 (1 LED - 644 nm, 18 mW, 1.12 J/'CM POT.2') and probe 2 (1 LED - 641 nm and 32 LEDs - 891 nm; 131 mW; 1.57 J/'CM POT.2'). Twenty patients were selected from ulcer outpatient clinic of dermatology service CSE-FMRP-USP, with 32 chronic venous ulcers, which were created 3 groups (G) by different forms of treatment: G1-probe 1 and SDZ; G2-probe 2 and SDZ and G3-only SDZ, followed by 90 days. After ulcers asepsis, the probes were applied on the wound punctually protected with PVC plastic sheet, to 1.5 J/'CM POT.2' for 30 seg/5 'CM POT.2', twice a week, and dressing with SDZ later. Fifthly, the ulcers were photographed digitally and their images were evaluated by the software ImageJ to measure of the total, granulation tissue (red) and sphacel/fibrin (yellow) areas. The wound healing rates (WHR) were calculated by formula [(WHR = Ao-Af)/Ai], meaning Ao (original area) and Af (final area). The averages of the G2 WHRs were 0.3 and 0.5 in the 30th and 90th days, with a significant reduction of the ulcerated areas (p < 0.01) when compared to the G3 with averages -0.08 and -0.03 respectively. In the G1, only at the 90th day, the mean of WHR (0.42) was different from the G3 (-0.03), and p<0.01. Considering the frequency of small ulcers with WHR '> OU =' 0.4, the G2 has reached this index by 75% of the ulcers in 30th and 90th days, while the G1 achieved in 33% of ulcers only in the 60th day. In the spectrophotometric analysis in the end of the study, it was observed that the 641 nm LEDs didn't issued effective light in probe 2, which was mainly constituted of 891 nm LEDs. The results showed that the 891 nm LED phototherapy accelerated the healing process of chronic venous ulcers in relation to the 644 nm LED, and both in relation to the silver sulfadiazine cream to 1%, corroborating evidence from several studies in vivo and in vitro on using of phototherapy (lasers and LEDs) of 600 to 1000 nm in tissue repair. Thus, the phototherapy by LEDs showed itself as a good physical method, biostimulator, noninvasive and an adjunct to conventional treatments for venous ulcers, such as silver sulfadiazine to 1%.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-04-28
 
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