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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.84.2016.tde-12092016-131846
Document
Author
Full name
Fabiana de Oliveira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Iglecias, Wagner Tadeu (President)
Martin, Andre Roberto
Pennaforte, Charles Pereira
Title in Portuguese
A superação do Paradigma Neoliberal na América Latina: uma análise comparada entre a Argentina Kirchnerista e a Venezuela Bolivariana (2003-2013)
Keywords in Portuguese
Argentina
Estado
Neoliberalismo
Venezuela
Abstract in Portuguese
O presente trabalho se propõe a comparar duas experiências de instauração dos princípios neoliberais na América Latina, Argentina e Venezuela, seus principais reflexos socioeconômicos e a construção de alternativas que recuperam o protagonismo do Estado como propulsor do desenvolvimento. A combinação de diversos elementos recorrentes na história política da América Latina, tais como os constantes e agudos distúrbios socioeconômicos e a fragilidade das instituições, constituíram um terreno fértil para que se implementasse de maneira acrítica um conjunto de políticas de caráter ortodoxo que levariam a um dos mais profundos processos de concentração de renda já existentes na história do sistema capitalista. O esgotamento deste modelo, no entanto, evidenciado pelos massivos protestos populares que tomaram as ruas das principais cidades argentinas e venezuelanas, assim como pelo risco que representou de que novas rupturas democráticas ocorressem nestes países, criou o cenário necessário para que projetos políticos progressistas encabeçados por outsiders da política nacional chegassem ao poder. As vitórias eleitorais de Hugo Chávez na Venezuela e de Néstor Kirchner na Argentina foram, então, a expressão não apenas do fracasso do neoliberalismo como modelo econômico na América Latina, como também da certeza de que os problemas sociais não podiam ser resolvidos por outro ator que não o Estado. A profundidade das reformas que foram promovidas por estes governos não nos impede, no entanto, de reconhecer as contradições que engendram e o bastante limitado êxito que tiveram suas iniciativas de transformar as estruturas econômicas dos seus respectivos países. É, por tanto, fundamental que busquemos compreender a estes fenômenos de maneira profunda e esta investigação representa um esforço neste sentido. O presente trabalho busca, portanto, comparar os projetos nacionais desenvolvidos na Argentina e na Venezuela entre 2003 e 2013 com o fim de observar se, de fato, tais processos apresentam importante grau de flexibilização do neoliberalismo, ademais de analisar se a construção dos novos arranjos econômicos, sociais e partidários nestes países nos permitem afirmar que a Argentina e a Venezuela caminham em direção à implementação de um modelo econômico que possa ser caracterizado como neodesenvolvimentista.
Title in English
The overcoming of the neoliberal paradigm in Latin America: an comparative analysis between the Kirchnerist Argentina and the Bolivarian Venezuela (2003-2013)
Keywords in English
Argentina
Neoliberalism
State
Venezuela
Abstract in English
This present work intends to compare two experiences of establishment of neoliberal principles on Latin America, Argentina and Venezuela, its main socioeconomic reflections and the construction of alternatives that retrieve the role of the State as the propeller of the development. The combination of several recurring elements in the political history of Latin America, such as the constant and acute socioeconomic disturbances and the fragility of the institutions, composed a fertile ground for the implementation in an acritic manner a set of orthodoxy character policies that led to one of the most deep processes of income concentration ever existent in the history of the capitalist system. The depletion of this model, however, evidenced by the massive popular protests which took the streets of the main cities of Argentina and Venezuela, as well as by the risk it represented if new democratic ruptures occurred in those countries, created the necessary scenery for progressionist political projects headed by outsiders of the national politic to arrive into the power. The electoral victories of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela and Néstor Kirchner in Argentina were, then, the expression not only of the failure of neoliberalism as an economic model in Latin America, as well as the certitude that social problems could not be solved by other actors besides the State. The depth of the reforms promoted by these governments does not inhibit us, however, from acknowledging the contradictions that engender and the very limited outcome their initiatives to transform the economic structures of its respective countries had. It is, therefore, imperative seeking to comprehend these phenomena in a deeper manner and this investigation represents an effort in that direction. Hence, the present work seeks to compare the national projects developed in Argentina and Venezuela between 2003 and 2013 as a way to observe if, de facto, such projects present an important degree of flexibility of the neoliberalism, besides analyzing if the construction of new economic, social and party arrangements in these countries allow us to state that Argentina and Venezuela move towards the implementation of an economic model that can be characterized as neodevelopmentist.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-09-12
 
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