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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.84.2011.tde-18122012-103652
Document
Author
Full name
Verena Hitner
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Braga, Marcio Bobik (President)
Gremaud, Amaury Patrick
Santos, Norma Breda dos
Title in Portuguese
Uma análise do malogro do modelo de desenvolvimento latino-americano dos anos 1990: os limites internos da Venezuela
Keywords in Portuguese
Neoliberalismo
Pacto de Punto Fijo
Venezuela
Abstract in Portuguese
O objetivo desse trabalho é compreender o processo político e econômico de abertura pró-mercado do final do século passado que levou, na América do Sul, à ascensão dos atuais governos de mudança. Optou-se por fazer uma análise que levasse em conta o processo geral da região, mas sem perder de vista a especificidade de cada país. Desse modo, buscou-se compreender os limites internos desse processo na Venezuela. Isso porque, além de o país ter sido o primeiro a eleger um candidato crítico ao neoliberalismo, no caso venezuelano, essa maior abertura econômica da década de 1990 levou à falência do modelo político vigente. A hipótese desse trabalho é, portanto, a de que eleição de um candidato com discurso radical de ruptura com o status quo se faz possível em uma sociedade como a venezuelana, que, historicamente, tem uma consciência rentísta. O rentísmo venezuelano permitiu, ao longo da história, a eleição de candidatos autônomos e com projetos políticos próprios. Essa característica histórica venezuelana, associada à perda de legitimidade política e econômica do modelo de Punto Fijo permitiu a ascensão de Chávez. A discussão dessa hipótese é feita em três capítulos que procuram entender historicamente o processo regional de ascensão e crise do modelo neoliberal para, em seguida, analisar os limites internos da Venezuela.
Title in English
An analysis of the failure of the Latin American model of development in the 1990s: the internal limits of Venezuela
Keywords in English
Neoliberalism
Political system of Punto Fijo
Venezuela
Abstract in English
The work aims at understanding the reasons that led to the emergence and the demise of the economic development model implemented in Venezuela in the 1990s and how such model contributed to the collapse of the political system established by the Punto Fijo Pact in 1958. It discusses the hypothesis that the rise of the Chávez Government was possible due to a regional context marked by the exhaustion of the neoliberal economic model in Latin America and the failure of the political system of Punto Fijo. The work opted to follow an analysis that took into account the overall process in the region without overlooking the specificities of the country. Consequently, it seeks to understand the internal limits of that process in Venezuela, a country characterized by an abundance of resources. That framework of analysis was adopted because Venezuela was the first country where a President with a critical approach towards neoliberalism was elected. Likewise, it was the country where a further opening of the economy led to the fall of the (then) current political system. The Venezuelan feature of a rentier society transformed the relations between the social agents and the state in such a way that a rentistic culture was firmly established. That Venezuelan historical trait, coupled with the loss of political and economic legitimacy of the Punto Fijo model, paved the way to the rise of Chávez. The discussion of the above-mentioned hypothesis is presented throughout three chapters that seek to provide a historical explanation of the rise and the crisis of the neoliberal in order to, subsequently, analyse the internal limits of Venezuela.
 
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2011_VerenaHitner.pdf (686.41 Kbytes)
Publishing Date
2012-12-18
 
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