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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.84.2017.tde-19062017-113344
Document
Author
Full name
Caio Junqueira de Souza Albuquerque
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Lamounier, Maria Lucia (President)
Anuatti Neto, Francisco
Gremaud, Amaury Patrick
Title in Portuguese
As primeiras concessões ferroviárias na Argentina e no Brasil: análise comparativa da evolução e desempenho de quantro empresas, 1850-1888
Keywords in Portuguese
Companhia Mogiana de estradas de ferro
Companhia Paulista de estradas de ferro
Estradas de ferro
Ferrocarril Central Argentino
Ferrocarril del Sud
Abstract in Portuguese
As ferrovias desempenharam um papel fundamental na transformação econômica pela qual passaram a Argentina e o Brasil, na segunda metade do século XIX. Estes países adotaram um modelo agroexportador, a fim de se inserirem na economia internacional que se desenvolvia à época. Milhares de quilômetro de trilhos foram construídos em cada país, boa parte deles por particulares, que recebiam concessões dos governos argentino e brasileiro tanto nacionais quanto provinciais. Para promover a construção de trilhos em países que, até meados do século XIX, se encontravam praticamente às margens da economia mundial e que não tinham qualquer tradição ferroviária, os governos precisaram outorgar uma série de benefícios a particulares, de modo a tornar as concessões atrativas. O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar os contratos e as condições das primeiras concessões ferroviárias de quatro estradas de ferro construídas na Argentina e no Brasil: o Ferrocarril Central Argentino, o Ferrocarril del Sud, a Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro e a Companhia Mogiana de Estradas de Ferro. Essas ferrovias se instalaram em regiões importantes para o complexo agroexportador que se desenvolveu em ambos os países. Além do estudo de suas concessões, também se analisou o desempenho das companhias em apreço, entre 1880 e 1888. As principais fontes deste trabalho são (i) as próprias concessões ferroviárias, (ii) documentos normativos argentinos e brasileiros sobre estradas de ferro, (iii) os relatórios dos diretores aos acionistas das empresas estudadas e (iv) revistas do século XIX sobre ferrovias. Os benefícios outorgados a investidores foram importantes para a promoção das primeiras estradas de ferro na Argentina e no Brasil. A garantia de juros foi o principal deles e ajudou a tornar as concessões desses dois países atrativas, visto que tal benefício era utilizado por diversos países. Contudo, a garantia de juros foi, frequentemente, concedida de maneira não criteriosa assim como outros benefícios outorgados pelos governos. Muitas das críticas que podem ser feitas à outorga de benefícios nas concessões questionam não os benefícios per se, mas o modo com que eles foram concedidos e, posteriormente, regulados. Se, por um lado, sustentou algumas estradas de ferro que não se revelaram lucrativas, a garantia de juros também conseguiu promover ferrovias rentáveis, que se tornaram independentes desse subsídio e ajudaram a desenvolver a economia do país em que se inseriam. É o caso das quatro companhias estudadas: todas elas se revelaram lucrativas na década de 1880, apesar das diferenças existentes entre elas em diversos aspectos como extensão, diferenças na colonização da região em
Title in English
The first railway concessions in Argentina and Brazil: a comparative analysis of the evolution and performance of four companies, 1850-1888
Keywords in English
Buenos Aires great southern railway company
Central Argentine Railway Company
Companhia Mogiana de estradas de ferro
Companhia paulista de estradas de ferro
Railways
Abstract in English
Railways have performed a significant role on the Argentine and Brazilian economic development during the second half of nineteenth century. These countries have adopted an agro-export economic model, with the purpose of deepening their ties with the international economy that was being developed. Thousands of kilometers of rails were built in each country. A good amount of them by privates, who were granted a concession from Argentine and Brazilian Governments both national and provincial. In order to build rails in countries that were, during mid-nineteenth century, loosely linked with the worlds economy and lacking railways, the governments had to bestow benefits to privates, to make concessions more attractive. This study aims to investigate the conditions and the contracts of the first railway concessions of four Argentine and Brazilian companies: the Central Argentine Railway Company, the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway Company, the Companhia Paulista de Estradas de Ferro and the Companhia Mogiana de Estradas de Ferro. These companies were established in regions in which the agro-export model has developed. In addition to the study of the concessions, the companies performance was also analyzed. The main sources of this work are: (i) the railways concessions; (ii) normative documents about railways in Argentina and Brazil; (iii) report of the directors to shareholders of the analyzed companies; and (iv) railway magazines from the nineteenth century. The privileges conceded to investors were important to promote the first railways in Argentina and Brazil. A guarantee of interest was the main privilege given in order to render the concessions attractive, as this benefit was also bestowed by different countries. However, the guarantee of interest was, oftenly, given in a non careful manner as other benefits conceded by the government. Many of the criticisms related to the grant of benefits in concessions question not the benefits per se, but the way they were bestowed and, afterwards, regulated. If, on one hand, the guarantee of interest has sustained unprofitable railways, it has also had the ability to promote lucrative railways, that have become free of this subsidy and have developed their own national economy. It is the case of the four investigated companies: they have revealed themselves profitable during the 1880s, despite the differences that distinguished them: extension, differences at the colonization of the regions in which they were built, gauge, passenger and good carried, among others.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-06-19
 
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