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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.88.2001.tde-27082001-160300
Document
Author
Full name
Cristiane Barbieri Rodella
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2001
Supervisor
Committee
Florentino, Ariovaldo de Oliveira (President)
Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael
Nart, Francisco Carlos
Nascente, Pedro Augusto de Paula
Santilli, Celso Valentim
Title in Portuguese
Preparação e caracterização de catalisadores de V2O5 suportados em TiO2.
Keywords in Portuguese
BET
DRX
EPR
óxido de titânio
óxido de vanádio
Raman
XANES e conversão do metanol
XPS
Abstract in Portuguese
Uma série de amostras do sistema catalítico V2O5/TiO2 foi preparada pelo método sol-gel com diferentes teores da fase ativa (de 0 a 9% em massa de V2O5) e calcinada em diferentes temperaturas (de 250 a 6000C). Sistema similar foi obtido pelo método de impregnação para a comparação. Os catalisadores foram caracterizados quanto suas propriedades texturais e estruturais pelas técnicas de Adsorção de N2 a 77K, Difratometria de Raios-X (DRX), Espectroscopia Raman, Ressonância Paramagnética Eletrônica (EPR), Espectroscopia de Fotoelétrons Excitados por Raios-X (XPS) e Espectroscopia de Absorção de Raios-X (XAS). Testes catalíticos para a verificação da atividade e seletividade foram realizados frente à reação de conversão do metanol. O sistema obtido pelo método sol-gel apresentou elevada área superficial e porosidade, as quais foram ampliadas com o aumento do teor de vanádio e reduzidos com o aumento da temperatura de calcinação. O sistema preparado por impregnação apresentou as mesmas propriedades texturais do suporte comercial. A análise de DRX identificou a existência de TiO2 nas formas cristalográficas anatásio e rutilo, não foi identificada a presença de V2O5 na forma cristalina. No sistema preparado por impregnação a estrutura cristalográfica do suporte se mantém, independente do teor de vanádio, porém a partir de 6% de V2O5 foi identificado à presença de V2O5 cristalino. Os espectros de Raman mostraram a presença de dois grupos superficiais de vanádio, os vanadilos monoméricos e os vanadatos poliméricos mesmo em elevados teores de vanádio, nos sistemas preparados pelo processo sol-gel. Nos catalisadores obtidos por impregnação foram identificados modos vibracionais referentes ao V2O5 cristalino.Os resultados obtidos por XAS confirmaram os obtidos por DRX e indicaram a presença de vanádio V4+ e V5+, porém com simetria diferente da forma cristalina V2O5. A determinação da razão entre os átomos V/Ti superficiais feita por XPS mostrou ser crescente com o aumento do teor de vanádio. Os espectros de EPR indicaram a presença de pelo menos três famílias de íons V4+ em diferentes simetrias, duas delas inseridas na matriz da titânia na fase rutilo e a outra dispersa na superfície. O sistema obtido por impregnação apresentou poucos íons V4+. Os testes catalíticos revelaram que a atividade e seletividade catalítica foram praticamente as mesmas para os sistemas preparados pelos dois métodos. Entretanto, a estabilidade catalítica do sistema obtido via sol-gel foi superior ao sistema preparado por impregnação.
Title in English
Preparation and characterization of V2O5 catalyst supported TiO2.
Keywords in English
vanadium and titanium oxides
XANES and methanol conversion
XRD
Abstract in English
A series of samples of the catalytic system V2O5/TiO2 was prepared by the sol-gel method with different proportions of the active phase (from 0 to 9% in mass of V2O5) and calcined in different temperatures (from 250 to 6000C). A similar system was obtained by the impregnation method for comparison. The catalyst were characterized by their textural and structural properties by Adsorption of N2 at 77K, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Catalytic tests for the verification of the activity and selectivity were performed by the conversion reaction of the methanol. The system obtained by the sol-gel method presented a high superficial area and porosity, which were enlarged by the increase of vanadium proportion and reduced with increase of the calcinations temperature. The system prepared by impregnation presented the same textural proprieties of the commercial support. XRD analysis identified the existence of TiO2 in two crystallographic forms, anatase and rutile. It was not identified the presence of V2O5 in the crystalline form. In the system prepared by impregnation the crystallographic structure of the support keeps, independent of the vanadium content, however starting from 6% of the vanadia was identified crystalline V2O5. Raman spectra showed the presence of two superficial groups of vanadium, the monomeric vanadyls and the polymeric vanadates even for elevated contents of vanadium, in the system prepared by the impregnation method vibrational modes were identified referring to V2O5 crystalline. The results obtained by XAS confirmed the obtained by XRD and indicated the presence of V4+ and V5+, however with different symmetry from the V2O5 in a crystalline form. The determination of the proportion between the surface V/Ti atoms determined by XPS showed to be increased with the increase of the vanadium content. EPR spectra indicated the presence of at least three V4+ion families in different symmetries; two of them inserted in the matrix of titania in the rutile phase and to other dispersed on the surface. The system obtained by impregnation presented few V4+ ions. The catalytic tests reveled that the catalytic activity and selectivity were practically the same for the systems prepared by both methods. However, the catalytic stability of the system obtained via sol-gel was superior to the system prepared by impregnation.
 
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Publishing Date
2001-10-16
 
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