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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.9.2013.tde-22062015-172352
Document
Author
Full name
Vanilda Aparecida Soares de Arruda
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Muradian, Ligia Bicudo de Almeida (President)
Bera, Alexandre
Alencar, Severino Matias de
Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva
Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza
Title in Portuguese
Pólen apícola desidratado: composição físico-química, qualidade microbiologica, compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, capacidade antioxidante e origem botânica
Keywords in Portuguese
Análise microbiológica
Composição físico-química
Compostos fenólicos
Pólen apícola
Propriedades biológicas
Abstract in Portuguese
O pólen apícola, produto da aglutinação do pólen das flores com néctar e substâncias salivares das abelhas, tem sido promovido como suplemento da dieta humana por apresentar propriedades nutricionais e bioativas. Sessenta e duas amostras de pólen apícola desidratado foram avaliadas para as análises de compostos fenólicos, flavonoides, atividade antioxidante por três métodos (DPPH, sistema β-caroteno e ORAC), origem botânica, qualidade comercial (umidade, cinzas, lipídeos, proteínas e carboidratos) e sanitária (bolores e leveduras, aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes totais, E.coli, clostrídios sulfito redutores e S.aureus.), além da atividade antimicrobiana (Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus). Os valores obtidos para compostos fenólicos e flavonoides totais variaram de 12,60 a 84,22 mg GAE/g de pólen apícola (GAE: equivalentes em ácido gálico) e 1,90 a 36,85 mg de quercetina/g de pólen apícola respectivamente. O EC50, determinado pelo método do DPPH, variou de 0,35 a 13,42 mg pólen apícola/mL de extrato. Os extratos de pólen apícola apresentaram valores entre 52,58 e 98,37 % para o método do β-caroteno. Quando quantificada por ORAC, a atividade antioxidante medida ficou entre 132,98 e 575,85 µmol eq. trolox/g pólen apícola. Na avaliação da qualidade comercial foram obtidos os valores de 3,06% a 8,12% para umidade, de 1,94 a 4,61%, para cinzas, de 3,35 a 10,96% para lipídeos; de 17,73 a 34,73% para as proteínas, de 11,86 a 25,71% e de 2,77 a 15,87% para os açúcares frutose e glicose, respectivamente. Verificou-se que a presença do pólen apícola inibiu o crescimento de todos os microrganismos estudados. Candida albicans foi a mais resistente e o Staphylococcus epidermides foi o mais sensível. Observou-se 36 tipos polínicos diferentes, destacando-se: Cocos nucifera sp., Mimosa scabrella (Benth.), Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Myrcia sp., Asteraceae, Poaceae., Euphorbiaceae e Brassica que ocorreram com maior frequência entre as amostras estudadas. Foram observadas somente correlações moderadas e fracas entre os tipos polínicos presentes e os parâmetros avaliados para as amostras desidratadas de pólen apícola.
Title in English
Dehydrtated bee pollen: physicochemical, microbiological quality, phenolic and flavonoids compounds, antioxidant and botanical origin.
Keywords in English
Bee pollen
Biological properties
Microbiological analysis
Phenolic compounds
Physicochemical composition
Abstract in English
Bee pollen, a product of agglutination of flower pollen with nectar and bee salivary substances, has been promoted as a dietary supplement for human because of its nutritional and bioactive properties. Sixty-two samples of dehydrated bee pollen were analyzed for phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity using three methods (DPPH, βcarotene and ORAC), botanical composition, commercial quality (moisture, ashes, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates), hygiene (aerobic mesophiles, yeasts and moulds, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and sulfite-reducing Clostridium), and antimicrobial activity (Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus). The obtained values for total phenolics ranged from 12.60 to 84.22 mg GAE/g bee pollen (GAE: gallic acid equivalents) while for total flavonoids ranged from 1.90 and 36.85 mg quercetin/g bee pollen. The EC50, determined by the DPPH method, ranged from 0.35 to 13.42 mg bee pollen/ml of extract. The bee pollen extracts showed values between 52.58 and 98.37% by β- carotene method. When measured by ORAC, antioxidant activity was between 132.98 and 575.85 µmols eq. trolox/g bee pollen. In the evaluation of commercial quality, the following results were achieved: 3.06% to 8.12% for moisture, 1.94 to 4.61% for ashes, 3.35 to 10.96% for lipids, 17.73 to 34.73% for proteins, from 11.86 to 25.71% and 2.77 to 15.87% for the carbohydrates glucose and fructose respectively. It was verified that the presence of the bee pollen inhibited the growth of all microorganisms studied. Candida albicans was the more resistant and Staphylococcus epidermides the more sensitive. Thirty-three pollen-types were identified mainly Cocos nucifera sp., Mimosa scabrella (Benth.) sp., Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Myrcia sp., Asteraceae sp., Poaceae sp., Euphorbiaceae sp. and Brassica sp. that occurred more frequently among the samples studied. It was observed only moderate and weak correlations between the pollen types present and the evaluated parameters for dehydrated samples of bee pollen
 
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Publishing Date
2015-08-18
 
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