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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Lílian Barbassa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Mamizuka, Elsa Masae (President)
Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria
Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura
Title in Portuguese
Novas formulações de fármacos tuberculostáticos em dispersões de brometo de dioctadecildimetilamônio: preparação, caracterização e avaliação da atividade in vitro contra micobactérias
Keywords in Portuguese
Bicamadas catiônicas
Brometo de dioctadecildimetilamônio
Isoniazida
Mycobacterium
Rifampicina
Tuberculose (Quimioterapia)
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: A tuberculose é uma infecção curável causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Requer tratamento prolongado e a combinação de vários fármacos implicando em efeitos colaterais que podem levar pacientes ao abandono do tratamento. Formulações de droga de liberação controlada como nanopartículas, nanoemulsões ou lipossomos têm tido sucesso contra doenças infecciosas. Em especial, brometo de dioctadecildimetilamônio (DODAB) disperso em água pode formar lipossomos ou vesículas grandes (LV) ou fragmentos de bicamada (BF) que podem carrear drogas hidrofóbicas ou hidrofílicas e ademais, podem atuar como microbicidas. Objetivos: determinar atividade do DODAB contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis e M. smegmatis tanto isoladamente como em combinação com duas drogas tuberculostáticas, rifampicina (RIF) e isoniazida (ISO); determinar a incorporação de RIF e ISO em dispersões de DODAB. Material e Métodos: Dispersões de DODAB foram obtidas por vortexação (LV) ou sonicação (BF) e sua interação com as drogas foi avaliada por espectros óticos das drogas, espalhamento de luz dinâmico para medida de distribuição de tamanhos e potencial-zeta e diálise para determinação de incorporação dos fármacos em DODAB LV ou BF. Viabilidade de M. smegmatis ou M. tuberculosis foi determinada por contagem de viáveis em função de concentração de DODAB. Combinações DODAB/droga contra micobactérias foram avaliadas por determinação de concentração inibitória minima (CIM), em µg/ml. Resultados: DODAB mata M. smegmatis a partir de 4 µM de concentração e 1 h de interação e M. tuberculosis, em 100 µM e 120 h de interação. ISO resultou permeável através da bicamada de DODAB em contraste com RIF que adsorveu irreversivelmente nas bicamadas, resultando em 75% de incorporação com 0.1 e 2 mM de droga e DODAB, respectivamente. CIM de RIF contra M. smegmatis foi 32 e, em combinação com 2 de DODAB caiu para 2. Para M. tuberculosis CIM de 0,015 caiu para 0,007 em combinação com 4 DODAB. A combinação foi sinérgica contra M. smegmatis e de ação independente contra M. tuberculosis.
Title in English
Novel formulations for drugs based on dioctadecyldimetihylammonium bromide (DODAB): preparation, characterization and evaluation of activity in vitro against mycobacteria
Keywords in English
Cationic bilayers
Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide
Isoniazid
Mycobacterium
Rifampicin
Tuberculosis (Chemotherapy)
Abstract in English
Introduction: Tuberculosis is potentially curable but remains a serious public health problem with large numbers of infected people in several countries. The long time that the patient should receive medication, associated with a large number of adverse effects often cause treatment failure. Nanoparticles, liposomes and emulsions have been used successfully in antibacterial therapy. In particular, dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayers in form of bilayer fragments (BF) or vesicles (LV) provided adequate environment for solubilization and stabilization of several drugs with an additional advantage: they acted as antimicrobial agents themselves. Objectives: investigation of DODAB bactericidal activity against mycobacteria, determination of entrapment efficiency for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (ISO) in DODAB dispersions and determination of the DODAB/drug activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and tuberculosis. Material and Methods: DODAB dispersions were obtained by sonication of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) synthetic lipid (BF)or by vortexing (LV) the lipid powder in aqueous solution. The physic-chemical characteristics of drugs in DODAB dispersions were determined from optical spectra and dynamic light scattering for evaluating size distribution and zeta-potentials. Drug incorporation in DODAB dispersions was determined from dialysis. Cell viability was determined from plating and colony forming unities (CFU) counting as a function of [DODAB]. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was obtained for drug or DODAB/drug combinations. Results: DODAB killed M. smegmatis and tuberculosis from 4¨µM (1 h interaction) and 100 µM (120 h interaction), respectively. Rifampicin drug particles above its solubilization limit could be solubilized by BF at 0.5 mM lipid. LV was leaky to ISO whereas RIF could be incorporated in BF or LV bilayer at high percentiles (0.1 mM RIF in 2 mM DODAB BF or LV). MIC for combination DODAB/RIF was 2/2 or 4/0.007 µg/mL whereas synergism index was 0.5 or 1.0 against M. smegmatis or M. tuberculosis, respectively. DODAB and RIF acted synergistically when tested against M. smegmatis.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-06-06
 
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