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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.9.2012.tde-21032013-144724
Document
Author
Full name
Jocimar Oliani
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Fischer, Dominique Corinne Hermine (President)
Cardoso, André Gustavo Tempone
Queiroga, Carmen Lucia
Title in Portuguese
Estudo químico e avaliação das atividades antiprotozoária e antimicobacteriana in vitro dos alcalóides isoquinolínicos e do óleo volátil de Annona crassiflora Mart. (Annonaceae)
Keywords in Portuguese
Alcalóides aporfínicos
Annona crassiflora Mart.
Annonaceae
Citotoxicidade in vitro
Leishmania (L.) amazonensis
Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi
Leishmania (L.) major
Leishmania (V.) braziliensis
Mycobacterium smegmatis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Óleo volátil
Trypanosoma cruzi
Abstract in Portuguese
Considerando o grave quadro das doenças negligenciadas, no Brasil e no mundo, e as limitações do tratamento empregado, na atualidade, torna-se urgente a pesquisa de novos fármacos, que sejam mais ativos e seguros. Para tanto, a busca de moléculas-protótipo, a partir de espécies vegetais, tem sido importante estratégia. Neste contexto, foi realizado o estudo de Annona crassiflora Mart. (Annonaceae), cujos alcalóides totais (AT) demonstraram promissora atividade antiprotozoária in vitro, em estudo anterior. Em paralelo, outras espécies de Annona mostraram atividade antimicobacteriana in vitro, igualmente, tendo motivado o presente estudo. Cinco das vinte frações alcaloídicas obtidas, por cromatografia em coluna, a partir dos AT das folhas, apresentaram atividade anti-Leishmania in vitro, tendo causado 100% de morte das formas promastigotas de Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi. Além disto, três delas foram ativas frente ao Mycobacterium tuberculosis. O isolamento de dois alcalóides noraporfínicos foi realizado, por fracionamento biomonitorado em coluna cromatográfica, seguido de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE) semipreparativa. As estruturas dos compostos isolados foram elucidadas empregando-se as análises espectroscópicas de ressonância magnética nuclear, mono e bidimensionais, e por CLAE acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CLAEIES-EM2). Um dos alcalóides foi identificado pela primeira vez, nesta espécie, sendo que o outro apresentou estrutura inédita. Ambos demonstraram significativa atividade anti-Leishmania in vitro (CE50≤ 10 µ g/ mL) frente às formas promastigotas de L. (L.) infantum chagasi [MHOM/BR/1972/LD]. O primeiro teve maior índice de seletividade (IS: 7,4), em relação à citotoxicidade em células do tecido conjuntivo NCTC Clone 929 de camundongos. Frente ao Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ATCC 27294) e ao M. smegmatis (ATCC 35798), os alcalóides isolados foram inativos (CIM ≥ 128 µg/ mL). O óleo volátil das folhas foi analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectroscopia de massas (CG-EM), tendo sido identificados 41 constituintes, prevalecendo os sesquiterpenos (81,7%) em relação aos monoterpenos (0,8%). Entre os compostos majoritários encontrados no óleo, citam-se os sesquiterpenos α-amorfeno (43,6%), E-cariofileno (17,7%) e o germacreno (5,3%). Nos testes de atividade anti-Leishmania in vitro frente às formas promastigotas de quatro espécies do parasita, o óleo foi mais ativo em L. (L.) infantum chagasi (CE50: 25,97 µg/ mL). Nas formas tripomastigotas do Trypanosoma cruzi mostrou atividade 8,5 vezes superior àquela do fármaco-padrão benznidazol (CE50: 5,31 µg/ mL). Os resultados obtidos ratificaram a importância da prospecção da flora, em particular de A. crassiflora, como fonte potencial de compostos bioativos, que venham a constituir novos fármacos, como alternativa à restrita terapêutica existente para o tratamento das doenças negligenciadas.
Title in English
Chemical studies and evaluation of in vitro antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activities of isoquinoline alkaloids and volatile oil from Annona crassiflora Mart (Annonaceae)
Keywords in English
Annona crassiflora Mart.
Annonaceae
Aporphine alkaloids
in vitro citotoxicity
Leishmania (L.) amazonensis
Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi
Leishmania (L.) major
Leishmania (V.) braziliensis
Mycobacterium smegmatis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Trypanosoma cruzi
Volatile oil
Abstract in English
Neglected diseases are a serious health problem in Brazil and worldwide. The available drugs are limited in effectiveness with a high toxicity. There is an urgent need of more safe and bioactive compounds. The search of new molecules from plant species is a well known and important strategy to achieve this goal. In a previous work, Annona crassiflora Mart. (Annonaceae) showed a promising antiprotozoal activity. Beside this, other Annona species presented an interesting antimicobacterial action. In this bio-guided study, after the column fractionation of the leaves total alkaloids, in vitro tests were performed and five from twenty fractions were highly active (100% deaths) against promastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, and only three were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After purification of the bioactive fractions, two noraporphine alkaloids were isolated by HPLC and identified by the usual mono and bidimensional spectroscopic techniques. One of them was isolated from the first time from this species. The other one is a novel chemical entity. Both compounds presented anti- Leishmania activity (CE50 ≤ 10 µg/ mL) against L. (L.) infantum chagasi [MHOM/BR/1972/LD]. The first one showed a higher selectivity index (SI: 7.4) considering its mice connective tissue cells toxicity [NCTC Clone 929]. However, both were inactive against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ATCC 27294) and M. smegmatis (ATCC 35798) (CIM ≥ 128 µg/ mL). In the leaves volatile oil 41 compounds were identified. The sesquiterpenes were in majority (81.7%), followed by monoterpenes (0.8%). The sesquiterpenes α-amorphene (43.6%), E-caryophyllene (17.7%) and germacrene (5.3%) were the main constituents. The oil was little effective against the four tested Leishmania species and slightly more active against L. (L.) infantum chagasi (CE50: 25.97 µg/ mL). However, it was highly active against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (CE50: 5.31 µg/ mL) showing to be 8.5 times more active than benznidazol. These results stimulate a deeper investigation of those alkaloids as antiprotozoal agents, confirming the importance of the plant species metabolites as a source of new bioactive molecules and their potential as future drugs.
 
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