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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.9.2016.tde-08092016-124613
Document
Author
Full name
Francine Inforçato Vacchi
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão (President)
Botta, Clarice Maria Rispoli
Gomes, Vicente
Pinto Junior, Ernani
Roubicek, Deborah Arnsdorff
Title in Portuguese
Ocorrência, genotoxicidade e risco ecotoxicológico de corantes no ambiente aquático
Keywords in Portuguese
Corantes
Genotoxicidade
Mutagenicidade
Abstract in Portuguese
Corantes são utilizados na coloração de diferentes substratos, incluindo papel, couro e plásticos, mas o uso mais importante é o têxtil e 1 a 5% destes corantes podem ser descartados no ambiente. Em geral, os corantes do tipo azo são tóxicos para os organismos aquáticos e alguns tipos de corantes podem ser mais tóxicos que outros. Mas, embora estes compostos e seus produtos de transformação reduzidos e/ou clorados podem ser encontrados no ecossistema aquáticos, não existem dados sobre genotoxicidade em organismos aquáticos até o momento. Muitos estudos têm demonstrado que avaliar danos ao DNA representa um biomarcador de exposição muito sensível em espécies aquáticas, que pode ser estudado utilizando ensaios in vivo e in vitro, como no caso das linhagens de células de peixe. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar a ocorrência de corantes dispersos em amostras ambientais; avaliar a mutagenicidade dessas amostras utilizando o ensaio de Salmonella/microssoma com as linhagens TA98 e YG1041, e a genotoxicidade com o ensaio do cometa em culturas celulares de peixe RTL-W1. HPLC-MS/MS foi utilizada para verificar a ocorrência de corantes em amostras do Rio Piracicaba à montante e à jusante do Ribeirão Quilombo e do descarte de uma Estação de Tratamento de Efluentes (ETE), localizados no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram detectados seis corantes dispersos nas amostras de águas superficiais e efluentes. O corante Disperse Red 1 foi o composto mais frequente, detectado em 8 das 16 amostras, porém sua contribuição para a mutagenicidade total foi baixa; os corantes Disperse Blue 373 e Disperse Violet 93 foram os que mais contribuíram. A genotoxicidade do Rio Piracicaba, avaliada pelo ensaio de Salmonella/microssoma e ensaio do cometa, aumentou após o lançamento do Ribeirão Quilombo e do efluente ETE, mostrando uma possível contribuição destes na genotoxicidade do Rio Piracicaba.
Title in English
Occurrence, genotoxicity and ecotoxicological risk of dyes in the aquatic environment.
Keywords in English
Dyes
Genotoxicity
Mutagenicity
Abstract in English
Dyes are used in the coloration of different substrates, including paper, leather and plastics, but the most important use is on textiles and 1 to 5% of these dyes might be lost into the environment. Azo dyes are the most important class, accounting for over 50% of all commercial dyes, and this class has been the most studied. In general, azo dyes are toxic to aquatic organisms and some types of dyes are more toxic than others. But although these compounds as well as their reduced/chlorinated transformation products can be found in aquatic ecosystems, no mutagenicity data are available until now in aquatic organisms. This remark remains of value, as well, regarding genotoxicity potential of such dyes towards aquatic organisms. Many studies have demonstrated that DNA damage measurement represents a very sensitive biomarker of exposure in aquatic species that can be studied both in vivo and in vitro using for example fish cell lines. The objectives of this work were evaluate the occurrence of disperse dyes in environmental samples; evaluate the mutagenicity of this samples using the Salmonella/microsome assay with strains TA98 and YG1041; evaluate the genotoxicity using the comet assay with fish cell lines RTL-W1. HPLC-MS/MS was used to verify the occurrence of dyes in samples of Piracicaba River upstream and downstream the discharge of Quilombo River and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent, located in São Paulo State, Brazil. Six dyes were detected in samples of water and effluents. Disperse Red 1 dye was detected in 8 of 16 samples, but its contribution for the mutagenicity was low. Disperse Blue 373 and Disperse Violet 93 were the major contributors for the mutagenicity found in the samples. The genotoxicity of Piracicaba River, evaluated with Salmonella/microsome assay and comet assay, increased after the discharges of Quilombo River and the effluent of WWTP, showing a contribution of this discharges on the river genotoxicity.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-10-14
 
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