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Thèse de Doctorat
DOI
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Leonard de Vinci Kanda Kupa
Adresse Mail
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
São Paulo, 2019
Directeur
Jury
Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge (Président)
Silva Junior, João Manoel da
Gales, Ana Cristina
Nascimento, Jorge Willian Leandro
Titre en portugais
Modelagem PK/PD na terapia antimicrobiana com carbapenêmico em pacientes sépticos críticos grandes queimados. "Estudo da efetividade do meropenem administrado através de infusão intermitente versus estendida"
Mots-clés en portugais
Abordagem farmacocinética-farmacodinâmica
Choque séptico
Grandes queimados
Infusão estendida
Meropenem
Resumé en portugais
O meropenem é um carbapenêmico de amplo espectro e alta potência, largamente prescrito para tratamento de infecções graves causadas por bactérias sensíveis gram-negativas em pacientes críticos internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a efetividade do antimicrobiano em pacientes grandes queimados, recebendo a dose recomendada 1 g q8h através da infusão intermitente de 0,5 hora que ocorreu até 2014 (grupo 1) comparada a infusão estendida de 3 horas que ocorreu após esse período (grupo 2). Investigaram-se 25 pacientes sépticos de ambos os sexos (6F/19M), 26 (21-34) anos, medianas (interquartil), 70 (60-75) kg, superfície corporal total queimada (SCTQ) 35 (16-42)%, SAPS 3: 55 (45-59) e Clcr 129 (95-152) ml/min que foram distribuídos em dois grupos. Registrou-se trauma térmico pelo fogo em 19/25 e trauma elétrico no restante dos pacientes (6/25), lesão inalatória (17/25), intubação orotraqueal e a necessidade de vasopressores em 18/25 pacientes. Duas amostras de sangue foram coletadas (3ª e 5ª horas) para dosagem sérica do meropenem por cromatografia líquida no período precoce do choque séptico. A farmacocinética foi investigada pela aplicação do modelo aberto de um compartimento e a abordagem PK/PD foi realizada com base no novo índice recomendado 100%fΔT>CIM. Evidenciou-se aumento do PCR 224 (179-286) versus 300 (264-339) mg/L, p=0,0411 e neutrofilia: 12 (8-17) versus 8 (2-15) células/mm3, p=0,1404, respectivamente nos grupos de infusão estendida versus infusão intermitente. Os níveis séricos obtidos mostraram diferença significativa entre grupos (p<0,0001) tanto para o pico 21 (21-22) mg/L versus 44 (42-45) mg/L, como para o vale 7,8 (7,3-9,5) mg/L versus 3,0 (2,6-3,7) mg/L. A farmacocinética mostrou-se alterada nos dois grupos frente aos dados de referência reportados em voluntários sadios. Significativa alteração ocorreu em diferentes proporções pela comparação entre os grupos relativamente à constante de eliminação 0,190 (0,157-0,211) versus 0,349 (0,334-0,382) h-1; meia-vida biológica 3,6 (3,3-4,4) versus 2,0 (1,8-2,1) h; depuração total corporal 8,6 (8,2-8,9) versus 5,3 (5,2-5,4) L/h; volume de distribuição 41,8 (39,9-44,5) versus 15,4 (14,1-16,2) L (p<0,0001). A infecção de ferida foi a mais prevalente nos dois grupos com 47% versus 38% dos isolados, sendo a Klebsiella pneumoniae, a principal enterobactéria. A abordagem PK/PD para patógenos CIM 1 a 4 mg/L mostrou cobertura até CIM 4 mg/L para a infusão estendida e até CIM 2 mg/L para infusão intermitente. Em conclusão, demonstrou-se a superioridade da infusão estendida decorrente de alterações na farmacocinética do meropenem em pacientes grandes queimados. O aumento do volume de distribuição contribuiu para o prolongamento da meia-vida e dos altos níveis de vale registrados, o justifica o impacto na cobertura antimicrobiana após infusão estendida e controle das infecções com cura desses pacientes.
Titre en anglais
PK/PD modelling in antimicrobial therapy with carbapenem in critically burn septic patients."Study of the effectiveness of meropenem administered by intermittent versus extended infusion"
Mots-clés en anglais
Infusion comparison
Meropenem
PK/PD approach
Septic burn patients
Resumé en anglais
Meropenem is a broad-spectrum agent widely prescribed for the treatment of septic shock caused by gram-negative susceptible strains in critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units. Subject of the present study was to evaluate the drug effectiveness in critically ill septic burn patients in SIRS at the early period of septic shock receiving the recommended dose of Meropenem 1 g q8h by intermittent 0.5 hour infusion or the extended 3 hour infusion. Twenty-five septic patients were: (6F/19M), 26 (21-34) years, medians (quartiles), 70 (60-75) kg, total burn body surface (SCTQ) 35 (16-42) %, SAPS 3: 55 (45-59) and Clcr 129 (95-152) ml/min. Thermal trauma was registered in 19/25 and electrical trauma in the remaining patients (6/25), inhalation injury (17/25), orotracheal intubation and vasopressor requirement in 18/25 patients. Patients were distributed in two groups on the basis of the duration of drug infusion that occurred for the patients of group 1 (1g q8h 0.5 hr) until 2014, December in the hospital. In addition, the extended 3 hours infusion occurred after that period for patients enrolled afterwards (group 2). Pharmacokinetics was investigated after blood sampling at the third (3rd) hour and the fifth (5th) hour of starting the meropenem infusion. Serum drug measurement was done by liquid chromatography. A one compartment open model was applied and kinetic parameters were estimated. PK/PD approach based on the new recommended index of drug effectiveness 100% fΔT>MIC was performed, on the basis on PK parameters and the minimum inhibitory concentration, PD parameter. It was demonstrated a significant difference between groups (p <0.0001) related to the trough levels 7.8 (7.3-9.5) mg/L versus 3.0 (2.6-3.7) mg/L, respectively after extended infusion or intermittent infusion. Concerning the pharmacokinetics, it was shown profound changes on meropenem kinetic parameters in both groups of burn patients by comparison with the reference data reported in healthy volunteers. In addition, it is important to highlight that significant changes occurred also by comparison of PK data between groups of patients related to the parameters: elimination constant 0.190 (0.157-0.211) versus 0.349 (0.334-0.382) h-1; biological half-life 3.6 (3.3-4.4) versus 2.0 (1.8-2.1) hr; total body clearance 8.6 (8.2-8.9) versus 5.3 (5.2-5.4) L/hr; volume of distribution 41.8 (39.9-44.5) versus 15.4 (14.1-16.2) L. Concerning the inflammatory biomarker an increase of C-reactive protein was registered in both groups of septic patients in SIRS: 224 versus 300 mg/L, p = 0.0411, after the extended infusion versus intermittent infusion, respectively. Wound and bone were the most prevalent sites of infection in those patients of both groups. It was shown in the isolates the prevalence of Gram-negative strains 54/83 (65%) that were distributed in Enterobacteriaceae, K. pneumoniae 7/30 (23%), and Non-Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa 13/54 (24%) followed by Acinetobacter baumannii 11/54 (20%). Drug effectiveness against susceptible strains was demonstrated by PK/PD approach up to 4 mg/L over 2 mg/L, after the extended infusion or after intermittent infusion, respectively. In conclusion, the superiority of the extended infusion in septic burn patients at the earlier period of septic shock was demonstrated, once considerable increases on volume of distribution impacted the drug effectiveness of these patients. Cure was obtained by meropenem monotherapy in 22/25 patients; only three patients (3/25) received meropenem - colistine combined therapy due to Acinetobacter baumannii isolated.
 
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Date de Publication
2019-08-19
 
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