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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.91.2005.tde-14072005-172203
Document
Author
Full name
Cláudia Irene de Oliveira Rezende
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Poggiani, Fabio (President)
Engel, Vera Lex
Oliveira, Fernando Carvalho
Title in Portuguese
Influência da aplicação do lodo de esgoto (Biossólido) sobre a concentração e o estoque de nutrientes na biomassa do sub-bosque, na serapilheira e no solo de um talhão de E. grandis.
Keywords in Portuguese
biomassa
biossólido – influência
eucalipto
lodo de esgoto
metais
serapilheira
solos
Abstract in Portuguese
O aumento da população urbana está gerando a necessidade de se dispor, de forma ecologicamente adequada, o lodo de esgoto produzido nas estações de tratamento (ETEs). O uso do lodo tratado (biossólido) como fertilizante e condicionador de solo em plantações florestais pode trazer soluções e benefícios ambientais e silviculturais. Existe, contudo, a necessidade de estudos prévios visando avaliar os eventuais impactos ambientais, tais como a possível disseminação de patógenos e o acúmulo de metais pesados no solo e nas plantas, principalmente das espécies que constituem o sub-bosque da floresta e que podem servir como suprimento alimentar para os herbívoros. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência do biossólido, 68 meses após sua aplicação, no estoque de nutrientes do sistema “solo- sub-bosque - serapilheira” em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis localizadas na E. E. de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga – SP (clima Cwa, segundo a classificação de Köeppen) e plantadas sobre Latossolo Vermelho Escuro, franco argilo arenoso. Para tal finalidade, foram quantificados os estoques dos nutrientes no solo, até 60 cm de profundidade, na fitomassa aérea do sub-bosque e na biomassa da serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo dos tratamentos: T1 – testemunha, T2 – aplicação de adubo químico e T3 - aplicação superficial de 20 t/ha de biossólido + K (produzido na ETE de Barueri da SABESP) nas entrelinhas de plantio dos eucaliptos. Também foram avaliadas comparativamente, as concentrações de nutrientes e metais pesados em espécies herbáceas/arbustivas do subbosque nos diferentes tratamentos. Os resultados evidenciaram que o biossólido aplicado aumentou a fertilidade do solo com respostas significativas para as concentrações do P, Ca, Zn e para o pH. Os estoques de todos os nutrientes do solo aumentaram, mas na profundidade de 0 – 10 cm os teores totais dos metais pesados Cu, Ni e Zn foram semelhantes aos do tratamento testemunha. De forma semelhante os teores e os estoques de N, P, Ca e Zn aumentaram na serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo. A biomassa vegetal aérea do sub-bosque aumentou com a adição do biossólido. Na vegetação de sub-bosque foi observado o aumento das concentrações e dos estoques de N, P, Ca, S e Cu nas gramíneas e de K, Ca, B e Cu nas folhas das dicotiledôneas. Comparando as plantas do sub-bosque coletadas nos tratamentos testemunha, adubo químico e biossólido, não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas concentrações de nutrientes e de metais pesados entre espécies Piper aduncum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Urena lobata e Solanum palinacanthum. Em geral, a adição do adubo e do biossólido ao solo não afetou de forma significativa a concentração dos metais pesados na vegetação do sub-bosque, garantindo a qualidade nutricional da biomassa produzida para os herbívoros, que integram a cadeia alimentar do ecossistema. Entretanto, o monitoramento dos metais pesados em cada espécie vegetal durante o seu ciclo de vida seria importante para planejar a forma de manejo mais adequada, visando atenuar futuros impactos no ecossistema.
Title in English
Influence of sewage sludge application (biosolids) on the concentration and stock of nutrients in the understory biomass, litter and soil in a stand of Eucalyptus grandis.
Keywords in English
biomass
biosolid-influnce
eucalyptus
litter
metals
sewage sludge
soils
Abstract in English
The increasing of urban population generates the need for an ecological and social acceptable disposal of sewage sludge produced by waste treatment plants. Therefore, the use of the sewage sludge (biosolid) as fertilizer and soil conditioner in forests plantations may be a suitable solution, becoming possible the increment of renewable wood production. However, previous studies are necessary to evaluate eventual impacts on environmental, such as the possible dissemination of pathogens in the ecosystem and the accumulation of heavy metals in soil and plants tissues, mainly in the understory species, that supplies foods and nutrients to herbivores. This paper had as objective to study the influence of the sewage sludge, 68 months after its application, in the stocks of nutrients of the "soil-litter- understory " system in experimental plots of Eucalyptus grandis located in the Experimental Station of Forest Sciences of Itatinga - SP (Cwa climate, according to Köeppen classification) and planted on Red-Dark Latossol, sandy clay loam texture. The stocks of nutrients were quantified in the soil, up to 60 cm of depth, also in aerial biomass of the understory vegetation and in the biomass of litter accumulated on the upper layer of the soil in the following treatments: T1 - control, T2 - application of chemical fertilizer and T3 - superficial application of 20 t/ha of sewage sludge + K (produced in the ETE of Barueri - SABESP) between the lines of eucalypts. It was been evaluated also, comparatively, concentrations of macro and micronutrients and heavy metals in grass/shrub species of the understory growing in the different treatments. Results showed that sewage sludge increased soil fertility manly for P, Ca, Zn and for pH and increased also the stocks of all soil nutrients, but the concentration of total heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn had been similar to the treatment control. Also concentrations and stocks of N, P, Ca and Zn increased in the litter accumulated on the soil. Sewage sludge promoted the increment of understory aerial biomass and also increased concentrations and stocks of N, P, Ca, S and Cu in the monocotyledoneous species and K, Ca, B and Cu in the leaves of dicotyledoneous. Comparing the understory plants growing in the control, chemical fertilizer and sewage sludge treatments, it were not observed significant differences for macro end micronutrients and also for heavy metals concentrations between the species Piper aduncum, Cenchrus ciliaris, Urena lobata and Solanum palinacanthum. In general, addition of chemical fertilizer and sewage sludge to the soil did not affect significantly concentrations of heavy metals in understory vegetation, assuring for the herbivores the nutritional quality of the biomass, that integrate the food chain in the ecosystem. However, heavy metals monitoring in vegetal components of each species (mainly leaves and fruits), during its cycle of life, would be important to plan the adjusted forest management to avoid or attenuate futures impacts in the ecosystem.
 
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ClaudiaRezende.pdf (1.45 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2005-08-01
 
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