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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.91.2004.tde-29072004-162959
Document
Author
Full name
Nei Kavaguichi Leite
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2004
Supervisor
Committee
Krusche, Alex Vladimir (President)
Camargo, Antonio Fernando Monteiro
Victoria, Reynaldo Luiz
Title in Portuguese
A biogeoquímica do Rio Ji-Paraná, Rondônia.
Keywords in Portuguese
água
bacia hidrográfica
biogeoquímica
cobertura do solo
ecologia aplicada
impacto ambiental
rios
usos do solo
Abstract in Portuguese
As mudanças no uso da terra que ocorreram no estado de Rondônia nas últimas décadas transformaram a paisagem da região. Especialmente ao longo da BR-364, o que antes era constituído quase que exclusivamente por florestas, hoje apresenta extensas áreas cobertas por pastagens, com impactos ainda desconhecidos no ambiente aquático. O presente trabalho procurou identificar a importância relativa das características naturais e antrópicas da bacia de drenagem na biogeoquímica das águas do rio Ji-Paraná e seus principais tributários, levando-se em consideração que a composição química de um rio reflete os processos que ocorrem em sua bacia de drenagem. Para isto, foi utilizada uma abordagem comparativa, na qual se avaliaram as diferenças entre sistemas com distintos usos e cobertura do solo, além das variações sazonais ao longo do período de estudo (1999-2002). Em relação às variações espaciais, as menores concentrações de analitos foram encontradas nos rios drenando áreas com solos mais arenosos e menor fertilidade, enquanto as maiores foram encontradas nos rios localizados na região central da bacia, com os solos mais argilosos e férteis. Em relação às variações temporais, observou-se que os rios em cujas bacias predominam florestas apresentaram correlações positivas entre a descarga e as concentrações de íons, enquanto que, para os rios em cujas bacias predominam pastagens, apesar de apresentarem correlação, esta foi negativa. Estes resultados poderiam indicar um controle da química destas águas apenas por processos naturais. Entretanto, analisando as variações dos nutrientes C, N e P, observou-se que a presença humana já começa a influenciar a biogeoquímica destes rios.
Title in English
The biogeochemistry of ji-Paraná river, Rondonia.
Keywords in English
applied ecology
biogeochemistry
environmental impact
land cover
land use
rivers
water
watershed
Abstract in English
Land use changes that occurred in the state of Rondonia in the last decades transformed the landscape of this region. Mainly along the road BR-364, what was almost all forest before is now covered with extensive pastures, with impacts in the aquatic systems that are still not known. This dissertation aims the identification of the relative importance of the natural and anthropogenic characteristics of the basin in the biogeochemistry of the Ji-Paraná river and its main tributaries, assuming that the chemistry of river waters reflects what happens in its basin. To achieve that, a comparative approach was used, in which differences between systems with distinct soils and land use/cover were analyzed, as well as seasonal variations during the period of this study (1999-2002). Regarding spatial variations, the lowest concentrations of ions were found in rivers draining areas with sandy and less fertile soils, whereas the highest ones were found in rivers located in the central part of the basin, draining soils with higher clay content and more fertile. In relation to seasonal variations, it was observed that rivers draining basins in which forests predominate show positive correlations between discharge and ionic content, while rivers draining basins with large areas of pastures, showed inverse correlations between discharge and concentrations of ions. These results indicate that the natural characteristics of these basins might be the main controlling factor of river biogeochemistry. However, variations in nutrient concentrations, such as C, N and P, also indicate that human influences are already present in these systems.
 
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Publishing Date
2004-08-04
 
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