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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.95.2010.tde-02122010-212001
Document
Author
Full name
Artur Trancoso Lopo de Queiróz
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Matioli, Sergio Russo (President)
Araújo, Luciano Vieira de
Fernandes, Flora Maria de Campos
Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza
Romano, Camila Malta
Title in Portuguese
Seleção natural no vírus da hepatite C: influência do sistema imune na resposta ao tratamento
Keywords in Portuguese
Epítopos
Hepatite C
Pressão Seletiva
Tratamento
Abstract in Portuguese
As taxas de resposta viral ao tratamento com Interferon- associado com Ribavirina ainda não estão bem definidas. Muitos estudos associam vários fatores virais e do hospedeiro, tais como a idade, sexo, peso, etnia, nível de enzimas hepáticas, estágio de fibrose, genótipo do HCV com os níveis de RNA viral. Outros estudos associam as células CD8+ específicas para epítopos do HCV com o controle da viremia. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar se há aumento na pressão seletiva contra o vírus nos pacientes em tratamento com Interferon- associado à Ribavirina respondedores em comparação com os pacientes não respondedores e associar esse aumento com a ação antiviral do tratamento e/ou com o aumento da resposta imune devido à ação imunomoduladora do Interferon-, utilizando-se modelos de máxima verossimilhança, de cálculo da razão dN/dS e realizando o mapeamento dos epítopos das proteínas NS5A. Nossos resultados demonstram que usando modelos par a par não foi detectado evidência de seleção positiva, entretanto utilizando modelos de máxima verossimilhança nós observamos evidência no grupo que não responde a terapia. O mapeamento dos epítopos revelou que o epítopo VLSDFKTWL estava associado com a resposta efetiva do tratamento com suporte estatístico. Estes resultados indicam que a resposta imunológica aumenta durante o período de tratamento, auxiliando na eliminação do vírus. Além das análises, foi desenvolvida uma ferramenta de mapeamento automático dos epítopos do HCV e análise de seleção natural aplicando modelos de máxima verossimilhança
Title in English
Natural Selection on Hepatitis C virus: The Immune System's Influence in Therapy Outcome
Keywords in English
C Hepatitis
Epitopes
Positive selection
Therapy
Abstract in English
The reason for low rates of sustained viral response (SVR) in HCV patients remains unknown. Several studies suggest that viral load is closely associated to viral and host factors, such age, sex, body weight, transaminase levels and HCV genotype. Moreover, an strong CD8+ T-cell immunity in acute resolving hepatitis C is matched by strong and sustained CD4+ T-cell proliferation to multiple recombinant structural and non-structural viral proteins is responsible for the control of viraemia in HCV infection. Here, we investigate the differences in CD8 epitopes frequencies from Los Alamos database between groups of patients that showed distinct response to pegylated alpha interpheron with ribavirin therapy, and test for evidence of natural selection on virus in treatment failure group, using five maximum likelihood evolutionary models. Our results indicated no evidence of positive selection by using pairwise models, however we identify evidence of positive selection in non responder group by applying maximum likelihood models. The epitope mapping showed that the epitope VLSDFKTWL was associated with efective therapy outcome, with statistical support. Those results suggest that the immune response increase during the treatment period, allowing the virus clearance. We also developed a tool for automatic mapping of epitopes of HCV that tests for evidence of natural selection by applying maximum likelihood models
 
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Publishing Date
2011-05-12
 
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