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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2014.tde-10042015-113438
Document
Author
Full name
Fábio Rogério Cassimiro Corrêa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2014
Supervisor
Committee
Deaecto, Marisa Midore (President)
Marcondes, Renato Leite
Secco, Lincoln Ferreira
Title in Portuguese
Os Bancos de Custeio Rural e o crédito agrícola em São Paulo (1906-1914)
Keywords in Portuguese
Café
Caixas rurais
Cooperativas
Cooperativas de crédito
Crédito agrícola
Abstract in Portuguese
O sistema de financiamento da cafeicultura evoluiu no processo da transição do trabalho escravo para o livre, ocasionando o aumento da demanda do crédito para o custeio anual da safra sobre os empréstimos de longo prazo exigidos durante o regime escravista. Por outro lado, a crise dos preços do café ocorrida entre 1896 e 1906 evidenciou as limitações do sistema de financiamento existente que estava baseado nos adiantamentos fornecidos por comerciantes. As novas necessidades de crédito e o crescente clima de descontentamento com os mecanismos comerciais de financiamento acabariam por suscitar propostas de intervenção do Estado com políticas de crédito agrícola a serem organizadas ou subsidiadas pelo governo do Estado de São Paulo e que viriam a ser concretizadas na esteira do programa de valorização do café, adotado em 1906. Tais intervenções incluiriam a criação de bancos agrícolas e o incentivo às cooperativas rurais de crédito, das quais os chamados Bancos de Custeio Rural são os primeiros experimentos desse tipo no estado e constituem nosso objeto de estudo. Os Bancos de Custeio Rural formaram uma rede de cooperativas de crédito, que atuou entre 1906 e 1914 no interior do estado de São Paulo. Esses bancos emprestavam apenas aos fazendeiros associados o valor demandado no financiamento anual da lavoura. Tendo surgido no contexto da crise cafeeira de 1896-1906, a sua reconstituição revela o intenso debate a respeito dos meios de se combater a crise e sobre o papel do Estado no financiamento agrícola. Os bancos de custeio surgiram como uma alternativa à intervenção governamental no sistema de crédito e representam a primeira experiência com o cooperativismo de crédito no Estado de São Paulo. Em 1914, eles estavam presentes em quarenta e nove cidades paulistas, no entanto, apesar de seu rápido crescimento, eles desapareceram após a falência da companhia que os organizava, em janeiro deste ano. Neste artigo discutimos as circunstâncias de seu surgimento, sua organização, atuação e falência
Title in English
The Bancos de Custeio Rural and the agricultural credit in São Paulo (1906-1914)
Keywords in English
Agricultural credit
Coffee
Credit cooperatives
Rural banks
Abstract in English
The financing system of coffee has evolved in the transition from slave to free labor process as credit for the cost of the annual harvest was imposed in relation to long-term loans required by the slave system. On the other hand, the crisis in coffee prices that occurred between 1896 and 1906 would demonstrate the limitations of the funding system, based on advances provided by merchants. The new credit requirements and the growing sense of discontent with commercial financing mechanisms would eventually raise proposals for state intervention through an agricultural credit policy to be organized by the state government of São Paulo and that was to be carried on the mat the coffee valorization program adopted in 1906. Such interventions include the establishment of agricultural banks and encouraging rural credit cooperatives of which the so-called Costing rural banks are the first experiments of this type in the state and constitute our object of study. The "Bancos de Custeio Rural" consisted of a network of credit unions that operated between 1906 and 1914 in the state of São Paulo. During this period, these banks lent, to associated farmers only, the necessary amount to fund their annual crop. Having arisen in the context of the coffee crisis of 1896-1906, their reconstitution reveals the intense debate regarding ways to tackle the crisis and the role of the state in agricultural finance. The BCRs emerged as an alternative to government intervention in the credit system and represented the first experience with the credit cooperativism in the state of São Paulo. In 1914, they were present in forty-nine cities of that state. However, despite its rapid growth, they disappeared as soon as the company that have organized them went bankrupt, in January of that same year. In this article, we discuss the circumstances of its emergence, organization, operations and bankruptcy
 
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Publishing Date
2015-04-10
 
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