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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.59.2020.tde-02102019-091247
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Beatriz Paschoalato Di Nardo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Barbieri, Valeria (President)
Gomes, Fernanda Kimie Tavares Mishima
Hueb, Martha Franco Diniz
Tachibana, Miriam
Title in Portuguese
A experiência parental e o desenvolvimento do Self de meninas com problemas de comportamento
Keywords in Portuguese
Família
Psicanálise
Técnicas projetivas
Tendência antissocial
Abstract in Portuguese
O comportamento antissocial em crianças possui diversas conceituações, sendo considerado unânime na literatura científica a importância do contexto familiar na compreensão do seu desenvolvimento. Assim, elegeu-se a experiência da parentalidade como alvo de investigação científica para a compreensão do complexo processo de produção e manutenção da tendência antissocial infantil. Este estudo teve por objetivo compreender a relação entre a maneira como os pais vivenciam suas experiências parentais e associá-la ao desenvolvimento do Self de meninas com problemas de comportamento. Tratou-se de uma investigação qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória. Participaram deste estudo 4 famílias de nível socioeconômico médio e médio/baixo, que tinham uma filha que apresentava comportamentos compatíveis com a descrição da tendência antissocial. As familias participantes foram: uma família composta por pai, mãe e filha, e três famílias monoparentais femininas. Foram realizados de 2 a 4 encontros: um encontro com os pais, para a apresentação da pesquisa, coleta de dados demográficos, aplicação de um questionário de saúde mental e um questionário referente à saúde mental de suas filhas; um encontro somente com o pai e outro somente com a mãe, em que alguns cartões selecionados do Teste de Apercepção Temática Infantil - forma animal (CAT-A) foram apresentados para que eles pudessem falar, a partir das figuras, sobre a experiência de ser pai/mãe de sua filha. Com a criança, foi realizado um encontro em que os mesmos cartões do CAT-A usados com os pais foram apresentados, solicitando que elas contassem uma história sobre cada um deles. A estratégia metodológica utilizada na pesquisa foi a das "Narrativas Psicanalíticas". Efetuou-se uma interpretação do material obtido no contato com a mãe, outra do contato com o pai, e outra do contato com a criança e, por fim, uma síntese de cada família, no intuito de relacionar a experiência parental e o desenvolvimento do Self de cada menina. Os pais relataram momentos de de-privação na vida das crianças, dificuldades para aproximar-se emocionalmente delas e de compreender suas necessidades, não auxiliando-as a criarem uma função mental de elaboração de suas angústias e ansiedades. Em relação à maneira de sentir a parentalidade, essa pareceu ser permeada pelas de-privações dos próprios pais, vividas ao longo de suas vidas, que dificultaram a maturação de recursos psíquicos aptos a digerir e assimilar as ocorrências e frustrações vividas em suas trajetórias, o que desencadeou uma dissociação defensiva que inviabiliza a elaboração dos lutos. Dessa forma, a dificuldade dos mesmos para acessar os próprios afetos, leva à escassez de encontros emocionais verdadeiros entre pais e filhas, o que intensifica os sintomas antissociais das mesmas. Ainda, em relação ao desenvolvimento emocional das meninas, observou-se a manifestação do falso Self em detrimento do verdadeiro; identificou-se também a presença de uma depressão latente, e o uso de defesas maníacas como medida de sobrevivência a essa condição.
Title in English
The role of the CAT-A for understanding parental experience and antisocial tendency development in children.
Keywords in English
Antisocial tendency
Family
Projective techniques
Psychoanalysis
Abstract in English
Scientific literature indicates the importance of the family context in the development of antisocial behavior in children. Thus, the present case study aimed to investigate the experience of parenthood as object of scientific investigation, in order to comprehend the complex process of production and maintenance of the antisocial tendency in children. This study aimed to understand the relation between the parents' experience of their own role and the development of the Self of girls with behavior issues. The participants of the study were 4 families of low average and average socioeconomic levels, whose daughter presented behavior compatible with antisocial tendency. Of the four families which participated in the study, one of them was composed by father, mother and daughter, and the other three families were composed by a single parent and daughter. There were 2 to 4 sessions with each of the families: one with the parents, in which the research was explained to them, demographic data were collected, and a questionnaire of mental health as well as a questionnaire of mental health referring to their daughters were administered; one session with each parent separately, in which were administered selected cards of the Children's Thematic Apperception Test (CAT-A), in order to understand their parental experience; and one session with the child, in which the same cards of the CAT-A were administered. Data were organized according to the methodological strategy of the "Psychoanalytic Narratives" and interpreted according to the Winnicottian approach to emotional maturation and psychopathology. Results showed that the couple seemed fragile and emotionally distant from each other and the child. The mother expressed feelings of loneliness and helplessness in face of her daughter's problems, as well as a need to be noticed by others, which was also expressed by the daughter. At the same time, though, the mother expressed fear of being absorbed in the relationship. Both the father and the daughter expressed feelings of being abandoned and not being loved, as well as a perception of affective bonds as precarious. Also, emotional deprivation was identified on the child's life. The parents encouraged their daughters to deal with their anxieties by means of rationalization. Such efforts seemed to suffocate feelings and did not allow the elaboration through secondary processes, thus encouraging a personality dissociation, which manifested itself by means of an antisocial tendency. The parents had reported moments of deprivation in their daughters' life, difficulties in being emotionally close to them and understanding their necessities. As to their experience of parenting, it seemed to be influenced by the deprivations they suffered in their own lives, which hindered the development of psychic resources for dealing with frustration, and led to a defensive dissociation which impaired their capacity of coping with loss. The parents' difficulty in accessing their own emotions led to the scarcity of true emotional encounters between them and their daughters, which in turn intensified their antisocial symptoms. Regarding the emotional development of the girls, it was possible to observe the manifestation of the false Self, as well as the presence of a latent depression, and the use of maniac defenses as means of survival to this condition.
 
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Release Date
2021-10-01
Publishing Date
2020-01-13
 
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